Foligno is a station on the main line from Rome to Ancona, and is the junction for Perugia; it is thus an important rail center, with repair and maintenance yards for the trains of central Italy, and was therefore subjected to severe Allied aerial bombing in World War II, responsible for its relatively modern aspect, although it retains some medieval monuments. Of its Roman past no significant trace remains, with the exception of the regular street plan of the centre. Other resources include sugar refineries and metallurgical, textile, building materials and paper and timber industries. After the war, the city's position in the plain and again its railroad connections have led to a considerable suburban spread with the attendant problems of traffic and air pollution, as well as a severe encroachment on the Umbrian wetlands. Foligno is on an important interchange road junction in central Italy and 2 km far from the centre of the city there is the Foligno Airport.
The city began to decay in the late Roman Empire years: after the fall of the latter, Fulginiae became part of the Duchy of Spoleto, and was sacked by the Saracens in 881 and ruined by Magyars in 915 and again in 924: its inhabitants therefore decided to move, settling around the nearby Civitas Sancti Feliciani (former Castrum Sancti Feliciani), a church strengthened by walls where the Bishop and martyr Feliciano was buried in the 3rd century AD and which was then already populated. The new seat had also attracted people from Forum Flaminii (now San Giovanni Profiamma), a neighbouring city that had been destroyed by the Lombards under Liutprand.
Foligno recovered and continued to grow, ultimately gaining the status of free city in 1165 thanks to emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Siding first with the Guelph party, after its occupation by Corrado Guiscardo, a captain of emperor, Frederick II it became Ghibelline as a fierce rival of the Guelph Perugia. It changed hands often during the wars of the 13th century, until 1305 when it was seized by the powerful Guelph family of the Trinci, acting as semi-independent deputies of the Holy See. During this period Foligno flourished and reached the height of its wealth and glory. It controlled a large territory, including Assisi, Bevagna, Giano, Montefalco, Nocera and Spello.
When Corrado Trinci went against the church, Pope Eugene IV sent a force against Foligno in 1439, led by the fearsome Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi. The inhabitants opened their gates and Corrado was beheaded in 1441 in the castle of Soriano. Henceforth Foligno belonged to the Papal States until 1860, with the exception of the Napoleonic era, when it was part of the Roman Republic (1799) then of the Kingdom of Italy (1809‑1814). The citizens took an active part in the Risorgimento wars, and on September 14, 1860 Savoy troops took the city and annexed it to the Kingdom of Italy.
It has suffered from several major earthquakes, among which those of 1832 and 1997.
The city is also notable for its association with the Bl. Angela of Foligno.
The "dead" rioni which had been absorbed within the former ones are: Borgo, Fonte del Campo, Cipischi, Croce, Falconi, Feldenghi, Franceschi, Menacoda, Piazza Vecchia, Spavagli.
The Giostra della Quintana is a knight ring Jousting tournament based on a historical event. It takes place in the Town of Foligno - Central Italy. Actually the challenges take place in June (1st Challenge) during a Saturday night and September (the counter-challenge) the 2nd or 3rd Sunday of September. The definition of Quintana comes from the 5th road of the Roman military Camps, where the soldiers were trained to the lance fighting. They run against a dummy-soldier, trying to catch a ring hanging from an arm of the dummy. Here the origin of the Tournament's name, but the first definition and documented "Quintana" as a knights' jousting tournament during a festival, dates back to 1448. Since then, in Foligno, the "Quintana" was held uninterruptedly every year. In 1946 the actual "Giostra della Quintana" was re-born. In 1613 the Priors included the Quintana in the events of Carnival festivals, and all has been historically documented. The knights are 10, each representing a quarter of the Town. Rushing at gallop, they have to catch 3 rings having smaller size at each tournament. The rings are hanging from a rotating statue represent Mars the Lord of War from the Roman memories. The statue is in oak original dating back until 1613 (XVII° century) having a shield and a straight arm. A number of happenings involve the whole town and a parade of 800 persons dressed in original-like precious dresses walk in the town the day before the Joust takes place.Colfiorito, Collazzolo, Colle di Verchiano, Colle San Giovanni, Colle San Lorenzo, Colle Scandolaro, Collelungo, Collenibbio, Colpernaco, Colpersico, Corvia, Costa di Arvello, Crescenti, Croce di Roccafranca, Croce di Verchiano, Cupacci, Cupigliolo, Cupoli, Curasci, Fiamenga, Fondi, Forcatura, Fraia, Hoffmann, La Franca, La Spiazza, La Valle, Leggiana, Liè, Maceratola, Maestà di Colfornaro, Modonna delle Grazie, Montarone, Morro, Navello, Orchi, Palarne, Pale, Perticani, Pescara I°, Pescara II°, Pieve Fanonica, Pisenti, Poggiarello, Polveragna, Ponte San Lazzaro, Ponte Santa Lucia, Pontecentesimo, Popola, Rasiglia, Ravignano, Rio, Roccafranca, Roviglieto, San Bartolomeo, San Giovanni Profiamma, San Vittore, Sant'Eraclio, Santo Stefano dei Piccioni, Scafali, Scandolaro, Scanzano, Scopoli, Seggio, Serra Alta, Serra Bassa, Serrone, Sostino, Sterpete, Tesina, Tito, Torre di Montefalco, Treggio, Uppello, Vallupo, Vegnole, Verchiano, Vescia, Vionica, Volperino.