The FTP-MOI groups were had been created in the Paris region at the same time as the Francs-tireurs et partisans, in 1941. Their ranks were filled with members from the Main-d'œuvre immigrée. Foreign communists living in France but not part of the French communist party had been put in place in May 1942. Although integrated with the FTP, these groups depended directly on Jacques Duclos, who passed on orders from the Communist internationale.
The FTP-MOI were among the most active and determined resistance groups, particularly as being foreigners, and mostly Jews, they were under the direct watch of the Vichy regime, which left them no choices but secrecy or internment. Because they depended directly on the Komintern, with Duclos as intermediary, it was often they who were on the front line when the order to fight came from Moscow, while the various French groups were more more responsive to the French national dynamic.
The FTP-MOI are particularly well known owing to the trial of 24 members of Manouchian's group, and the related Affiche rouge. Their trial was held in front of a German military tribunal at the hôtel Continental. It began on 17 February 1944, lasted between two and four days, and after a 30-minute deliberation, reached the following verdict :
Herbert Herz was a member of these two groups.
Langer was arrested carrying explosives in February 1943, and tried by the section spéciale of the Toulouse appeals court. The advocat général Lespinasse demanded his head, and on the 21 March 1943, Langer was sentenced to death. He was executed on 23 July 1943. The 35 Brigade then became the Brigade Marcel Langer.
Eighteen FTP-MOI members were arrested by the Vichy police and handed over to the Germans. Two died on the train that was taking them to be deported. Four were shot..
(*) Former member of the 35 Brigade FTP-MOI "Marcel Langer"