Executable UML is used to model the domains in a system. Each domain is defined at the level of abstraction of its subject matter independent of implementation concerns. The resulting system view is composed of a set of models represented by at least the following:
Executable UML requires identification of the domains (also known as: aspects or concerns) of the system. "Each domain is an autonomous world inhabited by conceptual entities" Each domain can be modelled independent of the other domains in the system, enabling a separation of concerns. As an example, domains for an automated teller system may include the following:
The separation of concerns enables each domain to be developed and verified independently of the other domains in the system by the respective domain experts.
The connections between domains are called bridges. "A bridge is a layering dependency between domains" . This means that the domains can place requirements upon other domains. It is recommended that bridges are agreed upon by the different domain experts.
A domain can be marked as realized to indicate that the domain exists and does not need to be modeled. For example, a data access domain that uses a MySQL database would be marked as realized.
Conceptual entities, such as tangible things, roles, incidents, interactions, and specifications, specific to the domain being modeled are abstracted into classes. Classes can have attributes and operations.
The relationships between these classes will be indicated with associations and generalizations. Some associations may require further abstraction as an Association Class.
Constraints on the class diagram can be written in both Action Language and Object Constraint Language (OCL).
The Executable UML profile limits which UML elements can be used in an Executable UML class diagram.
An Executable UML class diagram is meant to expose information about the domain. Too much complexity in the statechart diagrams is a good indicator that the class diagram should be reworked.
Classes have lifecycles which are modeled in Executable UML with a statechart diagram. The statechart diagram defines the states, transitions, events, and procedures that define a class' behaviour.
Each state has only one procedure that is executed upon entry into that state. A procedure is composed of actions, which are specified in an action language.
The class and state models by themselves can only provide a static view of the domain. In order to have an executable model, there must be a way to create class instances, establish associations, perform operations on attributes, call state events, etc. In Executable UML, this is done using an action language that conforms to the UML Action Semantics.
Action Semantics was added to the UML specification in 2001. Action languages have been around much longer than that in support of the Shlaer-Mellor method. Some existing action languages are Object Action Language(OAL), Shlaer-Mellor Action Language(SMALL), Action Specification Language(ASL), That Action Language(TALL), Starr's Concise Relational Action Language(SCRALL), Platform-independent Action Language (PAL) and PathMATE Action Language (PAL). SCRALL is the only one that is a graphical action language.
Once a domain is modelled, it can be tested independent of the target implementation by executing the model. Each domain can be verified and validated independent of any other domain. This allows errors detected to be associated with the domain and independent of other system concerns, and lowers the cost of verification and validation.
Verification will involve such things as human review of the models, performed by experts in the relevant domain, and automated checking of the Executable UML semantics. e.g., whether or not the Executable UML is compilable, whether or not each class attribute has a type, etc.
Validation will typically involve use of an Executable UML tool to execute the model. The execution can occur either before or after model compilation.
In order to support execution on the target implementation, the domain model must be translated into a less abstract form. This translation process is called model compilation. Most model compilers target a known programming language, because this allows reuse of existing compiler technologies.
Optimizing the domain models for target implementation reasons will reduce the level of abstraction, adversely affect domain independence, and increase the cost of reuse. In executable UML, optimizations are done by the model compiler either automatically or through marking. Marking allows specific model elements to be targeted for specific lower-level implementations, and allows for broader architectural decisions, such as specifying that collections of objects should be implemented as a doubly-linked list.
Executable UML is a profile of the UML, defining execution semantics for a subset of the UML.
Some of notable aspects of the Executable UML profile include the following:
The intended advantages of Executable UML are as follows: