Morales, Evo (Juan Evo Morales Ayma), 1959-, Bolivian political leader, president of Bolivia (2006-). An Aymara, he became a coca farmer when his family moved to Boliva's lowlands. In the 1980s Morales became a leader of the coca growers and gained prominence in the 1990s when the growers struggled against the U.S.-supported coca-eradication program. He formed a political party, the Movement toward Socialism, in 1995 and won a seat in the Bolivian congress in 1997. Morales was an outspoken critic of the government in Bolivia's subsequently turbulent politics, and was expelled from the congress in 2002 on charges relating to violence involving anti-eradication supporters. A populist and socialist who advocates ending the coca-eradication program and establishing national control over Bolivia's energy resources, Morales finished second in the 2002 presidential elections. In the 2005 presidential race, however, he received more than 50% of the vote, becoming the first person of indigenous descent to be elected president of Bolivia. He was easily reelected in 2009.

Pančevo (Serbian: Панчево) is a city and municipality located in Serbia at 44.87° North, 20.66° East, 15 km northeast from Belgrade. In 2002, the city had a total population of 77,087, while Pančevo municipality had 127,162 inhabitants. It is the administrative center of the South Banat District of Serbia. Pančevo is also the most important port on the Tamiš river, which flows near the city.


In Serbian, the town is known as Pančevo (Панчево), in Hungarian as Pancsova, in Turkish as Pançova, in German as Pantschowa, in Romanian as Panciova, in Slovak as Pánčevo, and in Rusin as Панчево.


The first historical record about the city is from the 12th century. The city belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary until the 16th century, when it became part of the Ottoman Empire. During the Ottoman rule, the city was part of the Ottoman Province of Temeşvar and was a large settlement mostly populated by ethnic Serbs.

Since 1716, the city was under Habsburg rule, and was included into Habsburg military province named Banat of Temeswar. In 1751, the northern parts of the province were placed under civil administration, while the southern parts (including Pančevo) were included into Military Frontier (Banat Krajina). During this time the city was divided into two municipalities, one Serb, and another German. According to the 1767 data, the population of the Serb municipality numbered 424 families, while the population of the German municipality numbered 132 families. According to the 1787 data, the population of the city was composed of 3,506 Orthodox Christians and 2,005 Roman Catholics. The city was shortly returned under Ottoman administration from 1787 to 1788. In 1794, Serb and German municipality were joined into one.

In 1848/1849, Pančevo was part of the Serbian Voivodship, a Serb autonomous region within Austrian Empire, but in 1849 it was returned under administration of the Military Frontier. In 1873, the Banatian Military Frontier was abolished and the city was included into Torontal county. According to the 1910 census, the population of the city was 20,808, of whom 8,714 spoke Serbian language, 7,467, German language, 3,364 Hungarian language, etc.

Since 1918, Pančevo is part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed to Yugoslavia). According to the 1921 data, the population of the city was 19,362, of whom 9,422 were Serbs, 7,237 Germans, 887 Hungarians, etc. Between 1918 and 1922, the city was part of the Banat county, between 1922 and 1929 it was part of the Belgrade oblast, and between 1929 and 1941 it was part of the Belgrade city administration.

Between 1941 and 1944, Pančevo was under Axis occupation and was part of the autonomous Banat within German-occupied Serbia. Since 1944, the city was part of the new Socialist Yugoslavia, and since 1945 it is part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Between 1992 and 2003, Pančevo was part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and between 2003 and 2006 of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. Since 2006, the city is part of an independent Serbia.

During 1999 the city was heavily bombed by NATO forces. Targets include an oil refinery, the airplane factory Lola-Utva and chemical plants.

Inhabited places

The Pančevo municipality includes the city of Pančevo, the towns of Kačarevo and Starčevo, and the following villages:

City quarters


Population and major ethnic groups in the municipality

Year Population Serbs Germans Romanians Hungarians Slovaks Macedonians Yugoslavs Croats Roma Rest
1910. 62,491 31.0% 36.72% 15.77% 10.30% 2.05% 0.0% 0.0% 2.2% 0.53% 1.43%
1931. 63,158 36.15% 38.50% N.D 7.37% N.D 0.0% 0.0% N.D N.D 17.96%
1961. 93,744 64.40% N.D 7.71% 8.17% 2.30 N.D N.D 2.99% 0.22% 14.21%
1991. 125,261 68.92% 0.24% 4.03% 4.02% 1.39% N.D N.D 1.35% 0.79% 19.26%
2002. 127,162 76.38% 0.18% 3.19% 3.17% 1.24% 4.14% 2.35% 0.92% 1.09% 7.34%

Most of the settlements in the municipality have an ethnic Serb majority. Ethnically mixed settlement with relative Hungarian majority is Ivanovo. There is also a growing Chinese community in northern parts of Pančevo.

Population and major ethnic groups in the town

Year Total Serbs Germans Yugoslavs Hungarians Slovaks Macedonians Montenegrins Croats Romanians Rest
1910 20,808 41.88% 35.89% 0.0% 16.17% 1.17% 0.0% 0.0% 0.65% - 4.24%
1921 - 48%(*) 37% - 8% - - - (*) 7% -
1991 72,793 72.57% N.D 8.75% 5.56% 2.20% 2.40% 1.88% 1.35% - 5.29%
2002 77,087 79.08% N.D 2.35% 4.25% 1.82% 1.55% 1.03% 0.92% - 9.00%

(*) In 1921, Serbs and Croats were counted together.


Pančevo has one of the oldest monasteries. Currently it is situated inside of Oil refinery.

City has many cultural events. One of them is ArtTech, international festival of digital arts.


Pančevo has a strong industrial background with the petrochemical, fertilizer, machinery, and aircraft industries (See: Lola Utva aircraft factory). It has a single oil refinery.


Twin cities

See also

External links

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