The European Defence Initiative
is a proposal for enhanced European Union
defence cooperation presented by France
on 29 April 2004
. It was based on the reinforced cooperation principle and aimed for better reactivity under the European Security and Defence Policy
(ESDP). Some critics felt that this intra-European process would be a source of tension in the transatlantic arena with NATO
and some felt that this was a duplication of existing means with the call for a distinct European headquarters. There were also some concerns about a multi-speed Europe
. The UK
was initially opposed to the concept but subsequently modified its position in favour.
It is sometimes referred to as the "Initiative of the Four".