This article lists political parties in the Netherlands
. The Netherlands has a multi-party
system, with numerous parties in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments
Parties with representation in the Eerste Kamer
, Tweede Kamer
or European Parliament
, as of October 2007:
|Christian Democratic Appeal
||Jan Peter Balkenende*
||Centrist Democrat International
||Partij van de Arbeid
|People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
||Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie
|Party for Freedom
||Partij voor de Vrijheid
||European Christian Political Movement
|Party for Animals
||Partij voor de Dieren
|Political Reformed Party
||Staatskundig Gereformeerde Partij
||Bas van der Vlies
|Independents Senate Fraction
||Hendrik ten Hoeven*
||did not compete
||Paul van Buitenen*
||did not compete
*: These political leaders are not chair of Second Chamber parliamentary parties
The Christen-Democratisch Appèl is a centre-right Christian democratic party. It supports free enterprise and holds to the principle that government activity should supplement but not supplant communal action by citizens. On the political spectrum, the CDA sees its philosophy as standing between the "individualism" of the VVD and the "statism" of the Labour Party. The CDA favours European economic, cultural and political integration. The party is led by Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende. The CDA is a member of the Centrist Democrat International.
The Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA, Labour Party), a European social democratic party, is left of center. Its program is based on greater social, political, and economic equality for all citizens. Former PvdA-prime minister Joop den Uyl has called it an "equal spread of knowledge, income and power." In recent years the PvdA has espoused a third way-program. The PvdA is generally supportive of European integration. Although called the Labour Party, it has no formal links to the trade unions. In practice, however, strong links exist, with PvdA politicians often beginning their careers in the FNV labour union. The party is led by Wouter Bos. The PvdA is a member of the Socialist International.
The Socialistische Partij (SP) is a left-wing party. In the 1970s and 1980s, it was a People's Republic of China-supported Maoist party, but in 1991 the SP dropped its communist course, and chose a more independent and less radical socialist course, denouncing Maoism and the People's Republic of China. The party itself has called it a move "from socialism to a social ism." The party opposes what it sees as the European Superstate. The SP operates as an independent party within the European United Left–Nordic Green Left in the European Parliament. Agnes Kant is the leader of the SP.
The Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD) is a conservative liberal party. It thus attaches great importance to private enterprise and the freedom of the individual in political, social, and economic affairs. The party is generally supportive of European economic integration, but is less supportive of political integration. The VVD is generally seen as the most right wing of the major parties, though the List Pim Fortuyn took a position to the right of the VVD. Mark Rutte leads the VVD. The VVD is a member of the Liberal International.
The Party for Freedom (PVV) is a right-wing populist party. It was erected by Geert Wilders, who split from the VVD in 2004. The PVV opposes the European Islamization and seeks to limit taxation. It is Euroskeptic and seeks to limit immigration.
GroenLinks combines, as the name (which translates to GreenLeft) says, a Green, environmentalist with a left-wing ideals. It operates to the left of the PvdA. The party was founded in 1989 as a merger of a left-radical, a pacifist, a communist and a leftwing Christian party. In 2004, the party leader Femke Halsema announced she saw her own party as a leftwing liberal party, possibly breaking with its socialist roots. Like D66, it is a multiculturalist party. GroenLinks is in favour of European integration, but opposes the current policies of the European Union. GroenLinks is a member of the Global Greens.
The ChristenUnie is a Christian party, which mostly concentrates on ethical issues, such as a resistance against abortion, euthanasia and gay marriage. In other areas (e.g. immigration and the environment), the party often is closer to the left-wing parties. It is sceptic about European integration. The CU operates within the Independence and Democracy group within the European Parliament and is a founding member of the European Christian Political Movement. André Rouvoet leads the party.
Democraten 66 (D66) has had widely fluctuating electoral fortunes since the party's founding in 1966. It is a centrist left-liberal and radical democratic party, generally portrayed as between the VVD and GroenLinks, with its strongest support among young, urban, professional voters. It professes a pro-European platform of ethnic and religious tolerance. Alexander Pechtold leads the party. D66 is a member of the Liberal International.
Partij voor de Dieren (PvdD) is a single issue animal rights-party. It is led by Marianne Thieme.
The Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (SGP) is a very conservative Christian party, with even stronger ethical points of view than the ChristenUnie. Although a very small party on a national level, it is an important political power in some orthodox reformed municipalities. The party sees governments (local, regional, national and international) as unconditional servants of God. The party bases all of its views directly on the Bible. The party opposes European integration and operates within the Independence and Democracy group. Bas van der Vlies leads the SGP.
Trots op Nederland is the proposed political movement associated with independent parliamentarian and former government minister Rita Verdonk.
Solidara formed as a one-person faction in the Eerste Kamer by Düzgün Yildirim on October 2, 2007. He was formerly a member of the Socialist Party.
Other national parties
Political organisations (not parties)
Some parties have a youth wing. The following are recognized by the Ministry of Home Affairs
Not recognized by the government are:
- Algemeen Ouderen Verbond (AOV) - General Elderly Alliance
- Algemeene Bond van RK-kiesverenigingen - General League of Roman-Catholic Caucuses (transformed in to the RKSP)
- Algemeene Nederlandsche Fascisten Bond - General Dutch Fascist League
- Anti-Revolutionaire Partij (ARP) - Anti-Revolutionary Party (merged into Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
- Arbeiderspartij van Nederland (opbouworganisatie) (APN(o)) - Workers Party of the Netherlands (build-up organisation) (disbanded)
- Boerenpartij (BP) - Farmers' Party (disbanded)
- Bond Christen Socialisten (BCS) - League of Christian Socialists
- Bond van Nederlandse Marxisten-Leninisten (BNML) - League of Dutch Marxist-Leninists (merged into KAO(ml))
- Bond van Vrije Liberalen - Association of Free Liberals (merged into Liberale Staatspartij)
- Christen Democratische Partij - Christian Democratic Party
- Christelijk-Democratische Unie (CDU) - Christian-Democratic Union (merged into Partij van de Arbeid)
- Christelijk-Historische Unie (CHU) - Christian-Historical Union (merged into Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
- Christelijk Sociale Party (CSP) - Christelijk Sociale Partij
- Christelijk-Historische Kiezersbond (CHK) - Christian Historical Voters' League (merged into the Christian Historical Party)
- Christelijk-Historische Partij (CHP) - Christian Historical Party (merged into the Christian Historican Union)
- Communistische Partij Nederland (CPN) - Communist Party Netherlands (merged into GroenLinks, some members formed the NCPN)
- Kommunistische Arbeidersorganisatie (marxistisch-leninistisch) (KAO(ml) - Communist Workers Organisation (marxist-leninist) (dissolved around 1980)
- Kommunistische Eenheidsbeweging Nederland (marxistisch-leninistisch) (KEN(ml)) - Communist Unity Movement of the Netherlands (dissolved in mid-1980s)
- Democratisch Socialisten '70 (DS'70) - Democratic Socialists '70
- Economische Bond (EB) - Economic League
- Evangelische Volkspartij (EVP) - Evangelical Peoples Party (merged into GroenLinks)
- Friesche Bond - Frisian League (merged into the Christian Historical Union)
- Gereformeerd Politiek Verbond (GPV) - Reformed Political Union (merged into ChristenUnie)
- Hervormd Gereformeerde Staatspartij (dissolved in 1946)
- Independent Socialist Party (OSP)
- Liberale Staatspartij (LSP) - Liberal State Party (merged into Partij van de Vrijheid)
- Liberale Partij - Liberal Party (merged into the Vaderlandsch Verbond)
- Liberale Unie - Liberal Union (merged into Liberale Staatspartij)
- Lijst Pim Fortuyn (LPF) - List Pim Fortuyn (disbanded in 2007)
- Katholieke Nationale Partij (KNP) - Catholic National Party (merged into the KVP)
- Katholieke Volkspartij (KVP) - Catholic People's Party (merged into Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
- Marxistisch-Leninistische Partij Nederland (MLPN) - a fake party founded in 1970 by the Dutch Intelligence Service BVD and the CIA, to research support for Maoism and to fool the People's Republic of China.
- Middenpartij voor Stad en Land (MPSL) - Middle Party for City and Country
- Middenstandspartij (MP) - Middle Class Party
- Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij - National Socialist Dutch Workers Party
- Nederlands Blok - Dutch Block
- Neutrale Partij - Neutral Party
- Pacifistisch-Socialistische Partij (PSP) - Pacifist-Socialist Party (merged into GroenLinks)
- Partij van de Vrijheid (PvdV) - Freedom Party (became Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie)
- Plattelandersbond - Peasants' League
- Politieke Partij Radicalen (PPR) - Political Party Radicals (merged into GroenLinks)
- Radicale Bond (RB) - Radical League (merged into VDB)
- Reformatorische Politieke Federatie (RPF) - Reforming Political Federation (merged into ChristenUnie)
- Roomsch-Katholieke Staatspartij (RKSP) - Roman Catholic Political Party (predecessor of KVP)
- Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiders Partij (SDAP) - Social Democratic Workers Party (merged into Partij van de Arbeid)
- Sociaal-Democratische Bond - Social Democratic League merged into the SDAP
- Socialistische Party - Socialist Party active before the Second World War (not to be confused with the current Socialist Party).
- Solidair '93 - Appears not to have contested elections after 1998.
- Verbond tot Democratisering der Weermacht - Alliance for the Democratization of the Army
- Verbond voor Nationaal Herstel - Alliance for National Reconstruction
- Vrijzinnig Democratische Bond (VDB) - Freethinking Democratic League (merged into Partij van de Arbeid)
- Vrij Antirevolutionaire Partij - Free Anti Revolutionary Party (merged in to Christian Historical Party)
- Verbond van Communisten In Nederland (VCN)- League of Communists in the Netherlands (split from the Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN) in 1983 and merged with the remains of the CPN in 1992 to form the NCPN)
- Party for Justice, Action and Progress (Partij voor Rechtvaardigheid, Daadkracht en Vooruitgang)
- Alliance for Renewal and Democracy (Alliantie voor Vernieuwing en Democratie, now defunct)
- The Conservatives (de Conservatieven.nl, now defunct)
- Sustainable Netherlands (Duurzaam Nederland, now defunct)
- List Veldhoen - Lijst Veldhoen, now defunct
- List Ratelband - LijstRatelband.nl, now defunct
- Party of the Future (Partij van de Toekomst, now defunct)
- O O The Hague (O O Den Haag), was initially registered for 2003 elections but withdrew.
- Arabic-European League (Arabisch-Europese Liga, AEL), initially founded in Belgium, active in the Netherlands between 2003-2005, now MDP
- Moslim Party (de Moslimpartij, founded 1993, now defunct)
- Islamic Party Netherlands (Islamitische Partij Nederland, founded 1998, now defunct)
- Liveable Netherlands (LN - Leefbaar Nederland)
- Unie 55+ - General Senior Union/Union 55+
- Centrum Democraten (CD) - Central Democrats
- Centrumpartij (CP) - Centrum Party (later Centrumpartij '86)
- Senioren 2000 - Seniors 2000