His son, Herman Eugene Talmadge, 1913-2002, b. McRae, Ga., practiced law for a time with his father. He won a special election for governor in 1948 and was reelected in 1950. After the 1954 Supreme Court decision on school desegration, he was a staunch opponent of integration. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1956 and was reelected three times. He was one of the members of the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, which investigated (1973-74) the Watergate affair. In 1979 he was censured for mishandling both his office and campaign finances. Although the Justice Department (1980) chose not to prosecute him, he lost his 1980 bid for a fifth term.
See W. Anderson, The Wild Man from Sugar Creek (1975).
See biographies by S. Thompson (2 vol., 1927, repr. 1973) and R. Conrow (1974).
The city of Eugene ("yoo-JEEN") is the county seat of Lane County, Oregon, United States. It is located at the south end of the Willamette Valley, at the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, about 60 miles (100 km) east of the Oregon Coast. According to the official 2007 population figures Eugene is the second largest city in the state of Oregon, with an estimated population of 153,690, and the second largest metropolitan population. Eugene has long been the state's second largest city after Portland, but was briefly overtaken by Salem in terms of population from around 2005 to 2007. Eugene has since overtaken Salem as Oregon's 2nd largest city.
Eugene is home to the University of Oregon. The city is also noted for its natural beauty, activist political leanings, alternative lifestyles, recreation opportunities (especially bicycling, rafting, and kayaking), and arts focus. Eugene's motto is "The World's Greatest City of the Arts and Outdoors." It is also referred to as "The Emerald Empire," "The Emerald City," "The People's Republic of Eugene," and "Track Town, USA". The Nike corporation had its beginnings in Eugene.
The first major educational institution in the area was Columbia College. It was founded in the same general area as, and a few years earlier than, the University of Oregon. It fell victim to two different major fires over four years, and after the second fire it was decided not to rebuild again. The part of south Eugene known as College Hill was the former location of Columbia College. There is no college there today.
The town raised the initial funding to start a public University, which later became the University of Oregon, with the hope of turning the small town into a cultural center of learning. In 1872, the Legislative Assembly passed a bill ratifying the University. The nearby town of Albany was Eugene's biggest competitor to provide a home for this institute. In 1873, community member J. H. D. Henderson donated the hilltop land for the campus, overlooking the city. The University first opened in 1876 with the regents electing the first faculty and naming John Wesley Johnson as president. The first students registered on 16 October, 1876. It would not be until 1877 that the first building would be completed; it would be later known as Deady Hall (for the first Board of Regents President and community leader Judge Matthew P. Deady.) The University of Oregon has been a leader in diversity since its very beginning; its inaugural class included two Japanese students.
Eugene is the home of Oregon's largest publicly owned water and power utility, the Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB). This institution got its start in the first decade of the 20th century after a typhoid epidemic was traced to the groundwater supply. Eugene condemned the private utility and began treating river water (first the Willamette, but now the McKenzie) for domestic use. EWEB got into the electric business when power was needed for the water pumps and excess electricity was used for street lighting.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 40.6 square miles (105.0 km²). 40.5 square miles (104.9 km²) of it is land and 0.1 km² (0.04 sq mi or 0.10%) of it is water.
To the north of downtown is Skinner Butte park. Hendricks Park, situated upon a knoll to the east of downtown, is known for its rhododendron garden and nearby memorial to Steve Prefontaine, known as Pre's Rock, where the legendary University of Oregon runner was killed in an auto accident. Alton Baker Park, next to the Willamette River, contains Pre's Trail. Also located next to the Willamette is the Owens Memorial Rose Garden, which is home to more than 4,500 roses of over 400 varieties, and the 150-year-old Black Tartarian Cherry tree, an Oregon Heritage Tree. A climb up Spencer Butte, south of the city, offers a look at Eugene and the headwaters of Amazon Creek, a waterway running from the butte to Fern Ridge Reservoir. Mount Pisgah Arboretum, part of Buford Park to the east, hosts annual mushroom and wildflower festivals.
Eugene contains urban forest. The University of Oregon campus is itself an arboretum, with over 500 species of trees. The city operates and maintains scenic hiking trails that pass through and across the ridges of a cluster of hills in the southern portion of the city, on the fringe of residential neighborhoods. Some trails allow biking and others are for hikers and runners only.
|Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures|
|Rec High °F||67||72||78||86||93||102||105||108||103||94||76||68|
|Norm High °F||46.5||50.7||55.9||60.6||66.8||73.3||81.5||81.9||76.6||64.6||52.1||45.7|
|Norm Low °F||33||34.9||36.7||38.9||42.7||47||50.8||50.8||46.7||40.5||37.2||33.3|
|Rec Low °F||-4||-3||20||27||28||32||39||38||31||17||12||-12|
There were 58,110 households, of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.1% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the city, the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 17.3% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,850, and the median income for a family was $48,527. Males had a median income of $35,549 versus $26,721 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,315. About 8.7% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
Ten people have held the city manager position. These include Deane Seeger (1945-49), Oren King (1949-53), Robert Finlayson (1953-59), Hugh McKinley (1959-75), Charles Henry (1975-80), Mike Gleason (1981-96), Vicki Elmer (1996-98), Jim Johnson (1998-2002), Dennis Taylor (2002-2007), Angel Jones (2007-2008), and Jon Ruiz (2008-present).
Recent mayors include Edwin Cone (1958-69), Les Anderson (1969-77) Gus Keller (1977-84), Brian Obie (1985-88), Jeff Miller (1989-92), Ruth Bascom (1993-96), Jim Torrey (1997-2004), and Kitty Piercy (2005-present).
Eugene City Council:
Mayor: Kitty Piercy
Corporate headquarters for the employee-owned Bi-Mart corporation and family-owned Market of Choice are located in Eugene. The Monaco Coach Corporation and Marathon Coach have their headquarters in nearby Coburg, Oregon. Hynix Semiconductor America announced on July 23, 2008 that it will close its large semiconductor plant in west Eugene. Emporium Department Stores, which was founded in North Bend, Oregon, had its headquarters in Eugene, but closed all stores in 2002. Organically Grown Company, the largest distributor of organic fruits and vegetables in the northwest, started in Eugene in 1978 as a non-profit co-op for organic farmers. Several local food processors, many of whom manufacture certified organic products, are nationally successful. These companies include Golden Temple (Yogi Tea), Mountain Rose Herbs, Surata Tofu, Toby's Tofu, Emerald Valley Kitchen, Turtle Mountain Foods (Soy Delicious Ice Cream) and Springfield Creamery (Nancy's Yogurt).
Several locally-developed small businesses have formed a coalition called Unique Eugene, which coordinates advertising and promotion, and shares its pool of customers.
Eugene is home to the University of Oregon. Other institutions of higher learning include Northwest Christian University, Lane Community College, Eugene Bible College, Gutenberg College, and Pacific University's Eugene Campus. Magnet schools and alternative education are key elements of the Eugene School District. The city also has many private and alternative schools, including The Little French School, a Pre-K through kindergarten program that provides immersion in a second language and the Eugene Waldorf School, an anthroposophical K-8 school. The curriculum of the Network Charter School, in downtown Eugene, is drawn from an alliance of local businesses and non-profits, such as the Center for Appropriate Transport. There are also a few elementary schools that immerse the students in a foreign language for half of the day: Buena Vista Spanish immersion, Yujin Gakuen Japanese immersion, and Charlemagne French immersion Bethel School District serves children in the Bethel neighborhood of Eugene.
Beginning in the 1960s, the countercultural ideas and viewpoints espoused by Ken Kesey became established as the seminal elements of the vibrant social tapestry that continue to define Eugene. The Merry Prankster, as Kesey was known, has arguably left the most indelible imprint of any cultural icon in his hometown. He is best known as the author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and as the male protagonist in Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test.
Eugene is home to numerous cultural organizations, including the Eugene Symphony, the Eugene Ballet, the Eugene Opera, the Eugene Concert Choir, the Northwest Christian University Community Choir, the Oregon Mozart Players, the Oregon Bach Festival, the Oregon Children's Choir, the Eugene Youth Symphony and Oregon Festival of American Music. Principal performing arts venues include the Hult Center for the Performing Arts, The John G. Shedd Institute for the Arts ("The Shedd"), Beall Concert Hall and the Erb Memorial Union ballroom on the University of Oregon campus, the McDonald Theatre, and W.O.W. Hall.
In addition, Eugene is home to the Bijou Art Cinemas, an independent movie theater.
Eugene museums include the University of Oregon's Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art, and the Museum of Natural and Cultural History; the Oregon Air and Space Museum at the airport, Conger Street Clock Museum in West Eugene, the Lane County Historical Museum, Maude Kerns Art Museum, Shelton McMurphy House, the Cascades Raptor Center, and the Science Factory Children's Museum & Planetarium.
The largest library in Oregon is the Knight Library, at the University of Oregon with collections totaling more than 2 million volumes and approximately 17,000 journals. The Eugene Public Library moved into a new, larger building downtown in 2002. The four-story library is an increase from to 130,000 square feet.
Annual visual arts events include the Mayor's Art Show and Art and the Vineyard
Dick Hyman, noted jazz pianist and musical director for many of Woody Allen's films, designs and hosts the annual Now Hear This! jazz festival at the Oregon Festival of American Music (OFAM). OFAM and the Hult Center routinely draw major jazz talent for concerts.
The local NPR affiliate is KLCC. The Pacifica Radio affiliate (airing Democracy Now! and FreeSpeech Radio News) is the University of Oregon student-run radio station, KWVA. Additionally, the community supports two other radio stations: KWAX (classical) and KRVM (alternative). Eugene has the distinction of having the most radio stations per capita of any other metropolitan area in the country, with 28 FM and AM stations serving approximately 300,000 people.
Eugene was the birthplace of the earliest incarnation of a psychoeducational model now known as Health Realization which has received accolades for its contributions to community mental health in low income communities around the United States. Started by Roger C. Mills and George Pransky working under a National Institute of Mental Health grant through the University of Oregon, Health Realization arose from these psychologists' attempts—beginning circa 1976—to turn the teachings of Sydney Banks, into a new psychology focusing on what makes mentally healthy people healthy.
In the 1970s, Eugene was packed with co-operative and community projects. It still has small natural food stores in many neighborhoods, some of the oldest student cooperatives in the country, and alternative schools have been part of the school district for years. The old Grower's Market, downtown near the train depot, is the only food co-operative in the U.S. with no employees. It is possible to see Eugene's trend-setting non-profit tendencies in much newer projects, such as the Tango Center and the Center for Appropriate Transport. In 2006, an initiative began to create a tenant-run development process for Downtown Eugene
Some of the anarchist activity could be said to have had its start in a "mud people's" protest. On that day, the participants noticed two blocks of trees, in a parking lot near the downtown area, were slated for removal the Sunday following. The ensuing "treesit" protest a week later, on June 1, 1997 was reported widely as it involved a several-hours-long action that was forcibly ended by police using copious amounts of pepper spray. A lawsuit by protesters against police response to that protest was settled five years later.
Club Sport Founded League Venue
Football, Basketball, Track and Field, Softball, Volleyball, Golf, Tennis, Baseball, Ultimate, Lacrosse, Hockey, Soccer, Baseball
1895 Morse Event Center
Most of Eugene's interest in sports surrounds the Oregon Ducks, part of the Pacific 10 Conference (Pac 10). American football is especially popular, with intense rivalries between the Ducks and both the Oregon State University Beavers and the University of Washington Huskies. Autzen Stadium is home to Duck football, with a seating capacity of 59,000. It is often considered one of the toughest places to play in all of college football: “Autzen’s 59,000 strong make the Big House [Michigan] collectively sound like a pathetic whimper. It’s louder than ‘The Swamp’ at Florida, ‘The Shoe’ in Columbus and ‘Death Valley’ at Louisiana State. Autzen Stadium is where great teams go to die.” — Michigan Daily, September 2003.
For nearly 40 years, Eugene has been the "Track Capital of the World." Oregon's most famous track alumnus is Steve Prefontaine, who was killed in a car crash in 1975. He has become a legendary figure among Eugene runners for his guts and lack of fear in races. Eugene's excellent jogging trails include Pre's Trail in Alton Baker Park, Rexius Trail, the Adidas Oregon Trail, and the Ridgeline Trail. Jogging was introduced to the U.S. through Eugene, brought from New Zealand by Bill Bowerman, who wrote the best-selling book "Jogging", and coached the champion University of Oregon track and cross country teams.During Bowerman's tenure Bowermans's "Track Men of Oregon" won 24 individual NCAA titles, which included titles in 15 out of the 19 events contested. During Bowerman's 24 years at Oregon, his track teams finished in the top ten at the NCAA Championships 16 times, including four team titles (1962,'64,'65,'70), and two runner-up finished. His teams also posted a dual meet record of 114-20.
Bowerman also invented the waffle sole for running shoes in Eugene (legend has it that he made the first soles with his wife's waffle iron), and with U of O alumnus Phil Knight founded shoe giant Nike, Inc. The Nike Store in Eugene includes a museum of this slice of track history. Eugene's miles of running trails, through its unusually large park system, are the most extensive in the US. The city has dozens of running clubs. The climate is cool and temperate, good both for jogging and record-setting. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon's Hayward Field track, which hosts numerous collegiate and amateur track and field meets throughout the year, most notably the Prefontaine Classic. Hayward Field was host to the 2004 AAU Junior Olympic Games, the 2006 Pacific 10 track and field championships, and the 1972, 1976, 1980, and 2008 US Olympic track and field trials, and will host the latter again in 2012. A few feet from Hayward Field, the earth's oldest pairs of running shoes are on display, at the Museum of Natural History.
The Nationwide Tour's golfing event Oregon Classic takes place at Shadow Hills Country Club, just north of Eugene. The event has been played every year since 1998, except in 2001 when it was slated to begin the day after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Oregon Classic alumni have well over 100 wins on the PGA Tour. The $450,000 dollar purse and attendance make it the second largest-sporting event in Eugene behind Duck football. The top 20 players from the Nationwide Tour are promoted to the PGA Tour for the following year.
Lane Transit District (LTD), a public transportation agency formed in 1970, covers 240 square miles (620 km²) of Lane County, including Creswell, Cottage Grove, Junction City and Veneta. Operating more than 90 buses during peak hours, LTD carries riders on 3.7 million trips every year. LTD's Eugene Station, downtown, covers nearly a city block, and is easily the busiest public plaza outside of the University. LTD recently opened a Bus Rapid Transit line between Eugene and Springfield, much of which runs in its own lane. The Emerald Express, as it is called, started running in January 2007.
Cycling is popular in Eugene. Summertime events and festivals frequently have bike parking "corrals" that many times are filled to capacity by three hundred or more bikes. Many people commute to work by bicycle every month of the year. Numerous bike shops provide the finest rain gear products, running lights and everything a biker needs to ride and stay comfortable in heavy rain. Bike trails take commuting and recreational bikers along the Willamette River past a scenic rose garden, along Amazon Creek, through the downtown, and through the University of Oregon campus.
The 1908 Amtrak depot downtown was restored in 2004; it is the southern terminus for two daily runs of the Amtrak Cascades, and a stop along the route in each direction for the daily Coast Starlight. Air traffic is served by the Eugene Airport, also known as Mahlon Sweet Field, which is the fifth largest airport in the Northwest.
Highways traveling within and through Eugene include: