Etawah is a city on the Yamuna River in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Etawah District. The city was an important center for the Revolt of 1857 (Allan Octavian Hume, the founder of Indian National Congress was district collector then). Also is the place of sangam or confluence between Yamuna and Chambal. It is also the site of the remains of the Great Hedge of India. Population (2001 census): 211,460
The District Of Etawah has an area of 1691 sq. M. It forms a purely artificial administrative division, stretching across the level plain of the Doab, and beyond the valley of the Jumna, to the gorges of the Chambal, and the last rocky outliers of the Vindhyan range. The district exhibits a striking variety of surface and scenery. The greater portion lies within the Doab or level alluvial plain between the Ganges and the Jumna. This part falls naturally into two sections, divided by the deep and fissured valley of the river Sengar. The tract to the north-east of that stream is rich and fertile, being watered by the Kanpur and Etawah branches of the Ganges canal, and other important works. The south-western region has the same natural advantages, but possesses no great irrigation system, and is consequently less fruitful than the opposite slopes. Near the banks of the Jamuna, the plain descends into the river valley by a series of wild ravines and terraces, inhabited only by a scattered race of hereditary herdsmen. Beyond the Jamuna, a strip of land extends along the tangled gorges of the Chambal and the Kuari Nadi, far into the borders of the Gwalior state. This outlying tract embraces a series of rocky glens and mountain torrents, crowned by the ruins of native strongholds, and interspersed with narrow ledges of cultivable alluvium. The climate, once hot and sultry, has now become comparatively moist and equable under the influence of irrigation and the planting of trees.
Etawah was marked out by its physical features as a secure retreat for the turbulent tribes of the Upper Doab, and it was not till the 12th century that any of the existing castes settled on the soil. After the Mussulman conquests of Delhi and the surrounding country, the Hindus of Etawah appear to have held their own for many generations against the Mahommedan power; but in the 16th century Baber conquered the district, with the rest of the Doab, and it remained in the hands of the Moguls until the decay of their empire. After passing through the usual vicissitudes of Mahratta and Jat conquests during the long anarchy which preceded the British rule, Etawah was annexed by the wazir of Oudh in 1773. The wazir ceded it to the East India Company in 1801, but it still remained so largely in the hands of lawless native chiefs that some difficulty was experienced in reducing it to orderly government. During the First War of Independence in 1857 serious disturbances occurred in Etawah, and the district was occupied by the Freedom Fighters from June to December; order was not completely restored till the end of 1858. The district is partly watered by branches of the Ganges canal, and is traversed throughout by the main line of the Indian railway (Northern zone) from Kanpur to Agra. Cotton, oilseeds, Ghee and other agricultural produce and a special bread of goat and buffalo are exported. Region has a 652MW Natural Gas based power generation plant however lacks manufacturing industries.
Lately Etawah is also frequently mentioned in the media because of the famous politician Shri Mulayam_Singh_Yadav and his sons who are also elected members of parliament from local constituencies.