Tartu Peace Treaty (Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally "Tartu peace") or Treaty of Tartu was a peace treaty between Estonia and Russian SFSR signed in February 2, 1920 ending the Estonian War of Independence. The terms of the treaty stated that "Russia unreservedly recognizes" the independence of Republic of Estonia de jure and renounced in perpetuity all rights to the territory of Estonia.
The treaty established the border between Estonia and Russia, affirmed the right of Estonian people to return to Estonia and Russian people to return to Russia and required that Estonian movable property evacuatd to Russia in the World War I
be returned to Estonia. Russia also agreed to absolve all debt from Tsarist times and to pay Estonia 15 million gold rubles
, a proportional share from gold reserves of former Russian Empire
. Additionally Russia agreed to grant concessions to exploit one million hectares of Russian forest land and to build a railway line from the Estonian border to Moscow. In return, Estonia undertook to allow the RSFSR
to build a free port at Tallinn or some other harbour and to erect a power station on the Narva River
The treaty was signed by Jaan Poska
on Estonian side and Adolf Joffe
for the Soviet Russia as well as by other representatives of both parties.
Tartu Peace Treaty is regarded as the birth certificate
of the Republic of Estonia. The treaty was also of utmost importance to the diplomatically isolated Soviet Russia, with Lenin
expressing satisfaction with the treaty as "an incomparable victory over Western imperialism
". Some members of the Entente
opposed the treaty with the intention to keep Soviet Russia in international isolation.
After signing, Soviet Russia failed to fulfill several points of the treaty, e.g. the museological collections of the University of Tartu
have not been returned to this day from Voronezh
and the migration of Estonians was obstructed.