(born June 17, 1898, Leeuwarden, Neth.—died March 27, 1972, Laren) Dutch graphic artist. He became well-known for prints in which he used realistic detail to achieve bizarre optical illusions, such as staircases that appear to lead both up and down from the same level. His work assumed a Surrealist flavour as he began depicting unexpected metamorphoses of mundane objects. His works were of interest to mathematicians, cognitive psychologists, and the general public and were widely reproduced throughout the 20th century.
Learn more about Escher, M(aurits) C(ornelis) with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Run-D.M.C. was a pioneering hip hop group during the 1980s founded by [[Joseph Simmons|Joseph "[The Reverend] Run" Simmons]], Darryl "D.M.C." McDaniels, and Jason "Jam-Master Jay" Mizell. The group had an impact on the development of hip hop through the 1980s and is credited with breaking hip hop into mainstream music. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked them number 48 in their list of the greatest musical artists of all time. They have been nominated for possible 2009 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
The 1988 album Tougher Than Leather lent its name to the band's film that year, which was directed by Rick Rubin and contained special guest performances by the Beastie Boys and Slick Rick. Run-D.M.C.'s executives at Profile Records were unimpressed by the excessive number of times the Def Jam Records logo popped up in the film, which was mostly because of Russell Simmons' involvement with the project.
In the music video for the song "King of Rock" there is an extended video of Buddy Holly performing on The Ed Sullivan Show.
In 1998, Jason Nevins remixed "It's Like That" and "It's Tricky". The remix of "It's Like That" hit number 1 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and many other European countries. A video was made for "It's Like That", although no new footage of Run-D.M.C. appeared in the clip.
Although Run-D.M.C. enjoyed plenty of commercial success, the effects of this were not solely positive. In Arts and Letters: An A-to-Z Reference of Writers, Musicians, and Artists of the African American Experience, the article on Run-D.M.C. notes that when their second album, King of Rock was released in 1985, there were also a number of violent incidents at rap concerts. While the media lauded Run-D.M.C. for their music, it also began to focus on "rap as a reflection of violence and drug abuse among young black males." Thus, the group felt torn between their mainstream appeal during the time of negativity in other manifestations of rap music.
In 2004, Run-DMC were honored on the first annual VH1 Hip Hop Honors
Run-D.M.C. was also the only rap act to perform at Live Aid in 1985.
|King of Rock|
|Tougher Than Leather|
|Back From Hell|
|Down With the King|
|Year||Title||U.S. Hot 100||U.S. R&B|
|1983||"It's Like That"||-||1|
|"Hollis Crew (Krush Groove 2)"||-||1|
|1985||"Can You Rock It Like This"||-||1|
|"King of Rock"||-||14|
|"You Talk Too Much"||-||1|
|"Walk This Way" (feat. Aerosmith)||4||8|
|"You Be Illin'"||3||12|
|1988||"I'm Not Going Out Like That"||-||40|
|1990||"What's It All About"||-||24|
|1993||"Down with the King"||21||9|
|"Ooh, Whatcha Gonna Do"||-||78|
2. Appiah, Kwame Anthony and Gates Jr., Henry Louis. Arts and Letters: An A-to-Z Reference of Writers, Musicians, and Artists of the African American Experience. Running Press: Philadelphia: 2004.