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Erwin

Erwin

[ur-win]
Piscator, Erwin, 1893-1966, German theatrical director and producer who, with Bertolt Brecht, was the foremost exponent of epic theater, a genre that emphasizes the sociopolitical context rather than the emotional content or aesthetics of the play. He worked experimentally in Berlin after 1919. As director of the Volksbühne (1924-27), and later at his own theater (on Nollendorfplatz), he produced social and political plays especially suited to his theories. His dramatic aims were utilitarian—to influence voters or clarify Communist policies. He used mechanized sets, lectures, movies, and mechanical devices that appealed to his audiences. In 1927 he produced a notable adaptation of a Czech novel (tr. The Good Soldier Schweik). Piscator went to the United States in 1939 and became director of the Dramatic Workshop and the Studio Theater, which he founded in New York City. He returned to Germany c.1958; he was appointed manager and director of the Volksbühne in West Berlin and received honors from the West German government for his contribution to the arts. His influence on European and American production methods was extensive.

See C. D. Innes, Erwin Piscator's Political Theatre (1974).

Schrödinger, Erwin, 1887-1961, Austrian theoretical physicist. He was educated at Vienna, taught at Breslau and Zürich, and was professor at the Univ. of Berlin (1927-33), fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford (1933-36), and professor at the Univ. of Graz (1936-38), the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (1940-57), and the Univ. of Vienna (1957-61). Schrödinger is known for his mathematical development of wave mechanics (1926), a form of quantum mechanics (see quantum theory), and his formulation of the wave equation that bears his name. The Schrödinger equation is the most widely used mathematical tool of the modern quantum theory. For this work he shared the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics with P. A. M. Dirac.

See studies by C. W. Kilmister, ed. (1987) and W. J. Moore (1989).

Panofsky, Erwin, 1892-1968, American art historian, b. Germany, Ph.D. Univ. of Freiburg, 1914. After teaching (1921-33) at the Univ. of Hamburg and serving as professor of fine arts at New York Univ., he joined (1935) the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J. His writings are among the most important of the 20th cent. in art history. Panofsky contributed studies, particularly in the realm of iconography, of the medieval, Renaissance, mannerist, and baroque periods. He is admired for his immense erudition, his discoveries, and his profound observations, laced with touches of humor. Among his principal works in English are Studies in Iconology (1939, 2d ed. 1962), Albrecht Dürer (1943, 4th ed. 1955), Early Netherlandish Painting (1953), and Renaissance and Renascenses in Western Art (2d ed. 1965). Other writings include The Codex Huygens and Leonardo da Vinci's Art Theory (1940), Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St.-Denis and Its Art Treasures (1946), Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism (1951), Galileo as a Critic of the Arts (1954), Meaning in the Visual Arts (1955), Correggio's Camera di San Paolo (1961), Tomb Sculpture (1964), Idea: A Concept in Art Theory (1924, tr. 1968), and Problems in Titian, Mostly Iconographic (1969).
Rommel, Erwin, 1891-1944, German field marshal. He entered the army in 1910 and rose slowly through the ranks. In 1939, Adolf Hitler made him a general. Rommel brilliantly commanded an armored division in the attack (1940) on France. In Feb., 1941, he took the specially trained tank corps, the Afrika Korps, into Libya. For his successes there he was made field marshal and earned the name "the desert fox." In 1942 he pressed almost to Alexandria, Egypt, but was stalled by fierce British resistance and lack of supplies. A British offensive overwhelmed (Oct.-Nov., 1942) the German forces at Alamein (see North Africa, campaigns in). Rommel was recalled to Germany before the Afrika Korps's final defeat. He was a commander in N France when the Allies invaded Normandy in June, 1944. Allied success led Rommel, who had lost his respect for Hitler, to agree to a plot to remove Hitler from office. Wounded in an air raid in July, he had just recovered when he was forced to take poison because of his part in the attempt on Hitler's life in July, 1944.

See his memoirs and correspondence of World War II. (The Rommel Papers, ed. by B. H. Liddell Hart, 1953); biography by D. Young (1950, repr. 1969); studies by R. Lewin (1968, repr. 1972), C. Douglas-Hume (1973), and M. Kitchen (2009).

Erwin Rommel, 1941.

(born Nov. 15, 1891, Heidenheim an der Brentz, Württemberg, Ger.—died Oct. 14, 1944, Herrlingen, near Ulm) German army commander in World War II. A teacher at military academies, he wrote the acclaimed textbook Infantry Attacks (1937). He commanded a panzer division in the invasion of France (1940), then led his Afrika Korps troops in early successes against the Allies in the North Africa Campaign. He became known as the “Desert Fox” for his audacious surprise attacks, and he was promoted to field marshal. In 1942 he was ordered to attack Cairo and the Suez Canal, despite his request to withdraw his exhausted troops. After his defeat in the Battles of El Alamein and retreat into Tunisia, he returned to Germany and in 1944 was given command of the defense of the northwestern French coast. His tactical suggestions were ignored, and after the Allied Normandy Campaign began, he became convinced that the war could not be won. Implicated in the July Plot to kill Adolf Hitler, he was ordered to take poison so that Hitler could avoid a trial of the esteemed “people's marshal.”

Learn more about Rommel, Erwin (Johannes Eugen) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 30, 1892, Hannover, Ger.—died March 14, 1968, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) German-born U.S. art historian. A professor at the University of Hamburg (1926–33), he fled Nazi Germany for the U.S. and in 1935 began teaching at Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study. He gained prominence for his studies in iconography, the study of symbols and themes in works of art. His writings are distinguished by their variety of subjects, critical penetration, erudition, and rich allusions to literature, philosophy, and history. Among his major works are the groundbreaking Studies in Iconology (1939), Albrecht Dürer (1943), and Early Netherlandish Painting (1953).

Learn more about Panofsky, Erwin with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 30, 1892, Hannover, Ger.—died March 14, 1968, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) German-born U.S. art historian. A professor at the University of Hamburg (1926–33), he fled Nazi Germany for the U.S. and in 1935 began teaching at Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study. He gained prominence for his studies in iconography, the study of symbols and themes in works of art. His writings are distinguished by their variety of subjects, critical penetration, erudition, and rich allusions to literature, philosophy, and history. Among his major works are the groundbreaking Studies in Iconology (1939), Albrecht Dürer (1943), and Early Netherlandish Painting (1953).

Learn more about Panofsky, Erwin with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Erwin Rommel, 1941.

(born Nov. 15, 1891, Heidenheim an der Brentz, Württemberg, Ger.—died Oct. 14, 1944, Herrlingen, near Ulm) German army commander in World War II. A teacher at military academies, he wrote the acclaimed textbook Infantry Attacks (1937). He commanded a panzer division in the invasion of France (1940), then led his Afrika Korps troops in early successes against the Allies in the North Africa Campaign. He became known as the “Desert Fox” for his audacious surprise attacks, and he was promoted to field marshal. In 1942 he was ordered to attack Cairo and the Suez Canal, despite his request to withdraw his exhausted troops. After his defeat in the Battles of El Alamein and retreat into Tunisia, he returned to Germany and in 1944 was given command of the defense of the northwestern French coast. His tactical suggestions were ignored, and after the Allied Normandy Campaign began, he became convinced that the war could not be won. Implicated in the July Plot to kill Adolf Hitler, he was ordered to take poison so that Hitler could avoid a trial of the esteemed “people's marshal.”

Learn more about Rommel, Erwin (Johannes Eugen) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Erwin is a town in Steuben County, New York, United States. The population was 7,227 at the 2000 census. The name is that of an early settler, who became the first Town Supervisor.

The Town of Erwin is in the southeast part of the county and is west of the City of Corning.

History

The first permanent settlement came around 1786. Erwin was formed from a previous "Town of Painted Post" (now Town of Corning) in 1826. Erwin was reduced to form the Town of Lindley (1837), but was increased by a part of the Town of Corning in 1856.

The "painted post" was a wooden post discovered in the south part of Steuben County. Its purpose and origin remain controversial.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 39.2 square miles (101.4 km²), of which, 38.7 square miles (100.2 km²) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.2 km²) of it (1.17%) is water.

U.S. Route 15, New York State Route 414, New York State Route 417 and Interstate 86 (Southern Tier Expressway) pass through the town.

The Tioga River merges with the Cohocton River near Painted Post to form the Chemung River which flows to the east. The Canisteo River flows into the Tioga River near Erwins village.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 7,227 people, 2,977 households, and 1,949 families residing in the town. The population density was 186.8 people per square mile (72.1/km²). There were 3,196 housing units at an average density of 82.6/sq mi (31.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 92.13% White, 2.24% African American, 0.18% Native American, 4.59% Asian, 0.12% from other races, and 0.73% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.30% of the population.

There were 2,977 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.5% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the town the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 18.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $44,386, and the median income for a family was $57,169. Males had a median income of $44,155 versus $28,795 for females. The per capita income for the town was $27,192. About 5.1% of families and 6.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over.

Communities and locations in Erwin

  • Coopers Plains -- A hamlet in the northern part of the town.
  • Corning-Painted Post Airport (7N1) A small airport west of Painted Post.
  • Erwin Wildlife Management Area -- A conservation area in the northwest part of the town.
  • Erwins -- A hamlet in the eastern part of the town on NY-417.
  • Gang Mills, New York -- A hamlet southwest of Corning, New York on US Route 15.
  • Painted Post -- The Village of Painted Post on NY-415.

References

External links

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