(originally coded as OSI-774
) is a drug
used to treat non-small cell lung cancer
, pancreatic cancer
and several other types of cancer. It is marketed in the United States
and OSI Pharmaceuticals
and elsewhere by Roche
under the tradename Tarceva.
Similar to gefitinib
, erlotinib specifically targets the epidermal growth factor receptor
(EGFR) tyrosine kinase, which is highly expressed and occasionally mutated
in various forms of cancer. It binds in a reversible fashion to the adenosine triphosphate
(ATP) binding site of the receptor. For the signal to be transmitted, two members of the EGFR family need to come together to form a homodimer
. These then use the molecule of ATP to autophosphorylate each other, which causes a conformational change
in their intracellular structure, exposing a further binding site for binding proteins that cause a signal cascade to the nucleus. By inhibiting the ATP
, autophosphorylation is not possible and the signal is stopped.
Erlotinib has shown a survival benefit in the treatment of lung cancer in phase III trials. It has been approved for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer that has failed at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. In November 2005, the FDA approved the use of erlotinib in combination with gemcitabine for treatment of locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic pancreatic cancer.
A test for the EGFR mutation in cancer patients has been developed by Genzyme. This may predict who will respond to erlotinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It is reported that responses among patients with lung cancer are seen most often in females who were never smokers, particularly Asian women and those with adenocarcinoma cell type.
Erlotinib has recently been shown to be a potent inhibitor of JAK2V617F activity. JAK2V617F is a mutant of tyrosine kinase JAK2, is found in most patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and a substantial proportion of patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis or essential thrombocythemia. The study suggests that erlotinib may be used for treatment of JAK2V617F-positive PV and other myeloproliferative disorders.
The drug's US patent will expire in 2020. .
In India, generic pharmaceutical firm - CIPLA is battling with Roche against the Indian patent for this drug. In March 2008, the Delhi High Court granted a temporary reprieve to Cipla to manufacture and sell its generic version of Erlotinib in India. Likewise, another generic pharmaceutical firm - Natco is also seeking to manufacture the generic version of Erlotinib in India BUT sell it to patients in Nepal using the TRIPS Agreements' Doha Declaration.
Common side effects include:
- Rash occurs in the majority of patients. This resembles acne and primarily involves the face and neck. It is self-limited and resolves in the majority of cases, even with continued use. Interestingly, some clinical studies have indicated a correlation between the severity of the skin reactions and increased survival though this has not been quantatively assessed. The Journal of Clinical Oncology reported in 2004 that "cutaneous [skin] rash seems to be a surrogate marker of clinical benefit, but this finding should be confirmed in ongoing and future studies. The newsletter Lung Cancer Frontiers reported in its October 2003 issue, "Patients with moderate to severe cutaneous reactions [rashes] have a far better survival, than those with only mild reactions and much better than those with no cutaneous manifestations of drug effects.
- Loss of appetite
- Rarely, interstitial pneumonitis, which is characterized by cough and increased dyspnea. This may be severe and must be considered among those patients whose breathing acutely worsens.
- Rarely, ingrown hairs, such as eyelashes
- It has also been suggested that erlotinib can cause hearing loss.
- Partial hair loss (by strands, not typically in clumps)
Resistance to treatment
A key issue with EGFR-directed treatments is that after a period of 8-12 months, the cancer cells become resistant to the treatment, most commonly by recruiting a mutated IGF-1 receptor to act as one of the EGFR partners in the homodimer, so forming a heterodimer. This allows the signal to be transmitted even in the presence of an EGFR inhibitor. Some IGR-1R inhibitors are in various stages of development (based either around tyrphostins such as AG1024 or AG538 or pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine derivatives such as NVP-AEW541.
- Sordella R, Bell DW, Haber DA, Settleman J. Gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutations in lung cancer activate anti-apoptotic pathways. Science 2004;305:1163-7. PMID 15284455.
- Genzyme " Genzyme Launches Exclusive Lung Cancer Test" Press Release September 27, 2005
- "Determinants of Tumor Response and Survival With Erlotinib in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Journal of Clinical Oncology, August 15, 2004.
- October 2003 issue of Lung Cancer Frontiers on rash/effectiveness correlation
- "Is Rash a Good Thing with EGFR Inhibitors?", Dr. Howard West, M.D., OncTalk, November 25, 2006 (directed toward the layperson).