Leinsdorf, Erich, 1912-93, American conductor, b. Vienna. Leinsdorf studied at the Vienna state academy of music and in 1934 began his conducting career, serving as assistant to Bruno Walter and then to Toscanini at the Salzburg festival. He made his New York debut as an assistant conductor at the Metropolitan Opera in 1938, remaining there as Wagnerian conductor until 1943, when he was made conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra. He returned to the Metropolitan Opera (1944) for one season and then served (1945-54) as conductor of the Rochester (N.Y.) Symphony Orchestra. After one year with the New York City Opera Company, he again conducted at the Metropolitan Opera until 1962, when he became music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He had enormous success in that position, from which he resigned in 1969.
Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980, psychoanalyst and author, b. Frankfurt, Germany, Ph.D. Univ. of Heidelberg, 1922. From 1929 to 1932 he lectured at the Psychoanalytic Institute, Frankfurt, and at the Univ. of Frankfurt. He came to the United States in 1934, where he practiced psychoanalysis and lectured at various institutions, including the International Institute for Social Research (1934-39), Columbia Univ. (1940-41), the American Institute for Psychoanalysis (1941-42), and Yale (1949-50). He served on the faculty of Bennington College (1941-50). He went on to teach at the National Univ. of Mexico (1951), at Michigan State Univ. (1957), and at New York Univ. (1961). Breaking from the Freudian psychoanalytic tradition which focused largely on unconscious motivations, Fromm held that humans are products of the cultures in which they are bred. In modern, industrial societies, he maintained, they have become estranged from themselves. These feelings of isolation resulted in an unconscious desire for unity with others. Fromm's works include Escape from Freedom (1941), The Sane Society (1955), The Art of Loving (1956), Sigmund Freud's Mission (1958), May Man Prevail? (1973), and To Have or to Be (1976).

See biographical studies by D. Hausdorff (1972) and G. Knapp (1989); R. I. Evans, Dialogue with Erich Fromm (1966, repr. 1981).

Raeder, Erich, 1876-1960, German admiral. As chief of staff to Admiral Franz von Hipper in World War I, he took part in the battles of Dogger Bank (1915) and Jutland (1916). Appointed (1928) commander of the German navy, Raeder secretly rebuilt the navy in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. He disagreed with Adolf Hitler on war strategy, and in 1943 Admiral Karl Doenitz succeeded him in command. Raeder was sentenced (1945) to life imprisonment as a war criminal but was released in 1955. His memoirs were published in 1957 (tr. 1960).
Honecker, Erich, 1912-94, East German political leader. From a Communist family, Honecker was imprisoned by the Nazis for 10 years for party activities. After the war he joined Walter Ulbricht's Socialist Unity (Communist) party and rose in the East German party bureaucracy. He joined the secretariat of the Communist party central committee in 1958, with responsibility for security. When Ulbricht resigned as party leader in 1971, Honecker succeeded him. He later replaced him as head of the national defense council, thus consolidating power over the military, the party, and the Government. In Oct., 1989, with resistance to the regime growing, he was ousted from his posts by the East German Communist party. After the reunification of Germany, and threatened by the possibility of being tried for ordering border guards at the Berlin Wall to shoot to kill, he entered a Soviet military hospital in Berlin. The reunified German government was unable to arrest him there, and when he was transferred to Moscow, Gorbachev blocked his extradition. In Moscow after the collapse of the USSR he took refuge in the Chilean embassy. In 1992 he was returned to Germany, where he was put on trial but then released as his health deteriorated. In Jan., 1993, he fled to Chile, where he died.
Ludendorff, Erich, 1865-1937, German general. A disciple of Schlieffen, he served in World War I as chief of staff to Field Marshal Hindenburg and was largely responsible for German military decisions. After Hindenburg became supreme military commander in 1916, Ludendorff also intervened in civilian rule. In 1917 he forced Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg to resign; his successors were subordinate to the military leaders. When the German military offensive collapsed (Aug., 1918), Ludendorff demanded an armistice (Sept. 29, 1918). Several days later he was dismissed by the new government of Maximilian, prince of Baden and fled to Sweden. Returning in 1919, he took part in the ultranationalist Kapp putsch (1920) and in the "beer-hall putsch" (1923) of Adolf Hitler. He was acquitted in the subsequent trial, was a National Socialist member of the Reichstag (1924-28), and ran unsuccessfully for president in 1925. Meanwhile, he and his second wife, Mathilde, were proponents of a new "Aryan" racist religion. Ludendorff wrote pamphlets accusing the pope, the Jesuits, the Jews, and the Freemasons of a common plot against Aryans. Later he became alienated from Hitler. His writings include Ludendorff's Own Story (tr. 1919) and The General Staff and Its Problems (tr. 1920).
Mendelsohn, Erich, 1887-1953, German architect, pioneer of expressionism. He is best known for his exuberant, sculptural design for the Einstein Tower in Potsdam (1919-21). Mendelsohn turned to more restrained forms in such later works as the Schocken Department Stores in Stuttgart (1926-27) and in Chemnitz (1928). He escaped from Nazi Germany to England in 1933 and after 1934 designed medical centers and other buildings in Haifa and Jerusalem. In 1941, Mendelsohn became a resident of the United States, where he designed several impressive synagogues in the Midwest.

See studies by A. Whittick (2d ed. 1956), W. von Eckardt (1960), and B. Zevi (1985).

Heckel, Erich, 1883-1970, German painter. In 1905, Heckel, together with Kirchner and Schmidt-Rottluff, founded the Brücke in Dresden. His paintings of this period (e.g., Scene in a Forest, 1913; Wallraf-Richartz Mus., Cologne) are characterized by violent color and slashing brushwork. His later works, primarily landscapes, are more tranquil in feeling.
Von Stroheim, Erich (Hans Erich Marie Stroheim von Nordenaall), 1885-1957, Austrian-American film director, writer, and actor. He came to the United States in 1909, and his first appearance as an actor was in Griffith's Birth of a Nation. In 1918 he wrote, directed, and acted in his first film, Blind Husband, and in 1923 his Greed, a landmark in film realism, brought him acclaim. As a director, his attention to minute detail soon earned him a reputation as a spendthrift. Especially noted for his portrayals of Prussian officers, he is perhaps best remembered for Grand Illusion (1937). His last film role in the United States was in Sunset Boulevard (1950).

See T. Curtiss, Von Stroheim (1971, repr. 1973); R. Koszarski, The Man You Loved to Hate: Erich von Stroheim and Hollywood (1983); A. Lennig, Stroheim (2000).

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