Definitions

Erich

Erich

Leinsdorf, Erich, 1912-93, American conductor, b. Vienna. Leinsdorf studied at the Vienna state academy of music and in 1934 began his conducting career, serving as assistant to Bruno Walter and then to Toscanini at the Salzburg festival. He made his New York debut as an assistant conductor at the Metropolitan Opera in 1938, remaining there as Wagnerian conductor until 1943, when he was made conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra. He returned to the Metropolitan Opera (1944) for one season and then served (1945-54) as conductor of the Rochester (N.Y.) Symphony Orchestra. After one year with the New York City Opera Company, he again conducted at the Metropolitan Opera until 1962, when he became music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He had enormous success in that position, from which he resigned in 1969.
Fromm, Erich, 1900-1980, psychoanalyst and author, b. Frankfurt, Germany, Ph.D. Univ. of Heidelberg, 1922. From 1929 to 1932 he lectured at the Psychoanalytic Institute, Frankfurt, and at the Univ. of Frankfurt. He came to the United States in 1934, where he practiced psychoanalysis and lectured at various institutions, including the International Institute for Social Research (1934-39), Columbia Univ. (1940-41), the American Institute for Psychoanalysis (1941-42), and Yale (1949-50). He served on the faculty of Bennington College (1941-50). He went on to teach at the National Univ. of Mexico (1951), at Michigan State Univ. (1957), and at New York Univ. (1961). Breaking from the Freudian psychoanalytic tradition which focused largely on unconscious motivations, Fromm held that humans are products of the cultures in which they are bred. In modern, industrial societies, he maintained, they have become estranged from themselves. These feelings of isolation resulted in an unconscious desire for unity with others. Fromm's works include Escape from Freedom (1941), The Sane Society (1955), The Art of Loving (1956), Sigmund Freud's Mission (1958), May Man Prevail? (1973), and To Have or to Be (1976).

See biographical studies by D. Hausdorff (1972) and G. Knapp (1989); R. I. Evans, Dialogue with Erich Fromm (1966, repr. 1981).

Raeder, Erich, 1876-1960, German admiral. As chief of staff to Admiral Franz von Hipper in World War I, he took part in the battles of Dogger Bank (1915) and Jutland (1916). Appointed (1928) commander of the German navy, Raeder secretly rebuilt the navy in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. He disagreed with Adolf Hitler on war strategy, and in 1943 Admiral Karl Doenitz succeeded him in command. Raeder was sentenced (1945) to life imprisonment as a war criminal but was released in 1955. His memoirs were published in 1957 (tr. 1960).
Honecker, Erich, 1912-94, East German political leader. From a Communist family, Honecker was imprisoned by the Nazis for 10 years for party activities. After the war he joined Walter Ulbricht's Socialist Unity (Communist) party and rose in the East German party bureaucracy. He joined the secretariat of the Communist party central committee in 1958, with responsibility for security. When Ulbricht resigned as party leader in 1971, Honecker succeeded him. He later replaced him as head of the national defense council, thus consolidating power over the military, the party, and the Government. In Oct., 1989, with resistance to the regime growing, he was ousted from his posts by the East German Communist party. After the reunification of Germany, and threatened by the possibility of being tried for ordering border guards at the Berlin Wall to shoot to kill, he entered a Soviet military hospital in Berlin. The reunified German government was unable to arrest him there, and when he was transferred to Moscow, Gorbachev blocked his extradition. In Moscow after the collapse of the USSR he took refuge in the Chilean embassy. In 1992 he was returned to Germany, where he was put on trial but then released as his health deteriorated. In Jan., 1993, he fled to Chile, where he died.
Ludendorff, Erich, 1865-1937, German general. A disciple of Schlieffen, he served in World War I as chief of staff to Field Marshal Hindenburg and was largely responsible for German military decisions. After Hindenburg became supreme military commander in 1916, Ludendorff also intervened in civilian rule. In 1917 he forced Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg to resign; his successors were subordinate to the military leaders. When the German military offensive collapsed (Aug., 1918), Ludendorff demanded an armistice (Sept. 29, 1918). Several days later he was dismissed by the new government of Maximilian, prince of Baden and fled to Sweden. Returning in 1919, he took part in the ultranationalist Kapp putsch (1920) and in the "beer-hall putsch" (1923) of Adolf Hitler. He was acquitted in the subsequent trial, was a National Socialist member of the Reichstag (1924-28), and ran unsuccessfully for president in 1925. Meanwhile, he and his second wife, Mathilde, were proponents of a new "Aryan" racist religion. Ludendorff wrote pamphlets accusing the pope, the Jesuits, the Jews, and the Freemasons of a common plot against Aryans. Later he became alienated from Hitler. His writings include Ludendorff's Own Story (tr. 1919) and The General Staff and Its Problems (tr. 1920).
Mendelsohn, Erich, 1887-1953, German architect, pioneer of expressionism. He is best known for his exuberant, sculptural design for the Einstein Tower in Potsdam (1919-21). Mendelsohn turned to more restrained forms in such later works as the Schocken Department Stores in Stuttgart (1926-27) and in Chemnitz (1928). He escaped from Nazi Germany to England in 1933 and after 1934 designed medical centers and other buildings in Haifa and Jerusalem. In 1941, Mendelsohn became a resident of the United States, where he designed several impressive synagogues in the Midwest.

See studies by A. Whittick (2d ed. 1956), W. von Eckardt (1960), and B. Zevi (1985).

Heckel, Erich, 1883-1970, German painter. In 1905, Heckel, together with Kirchner and Schmidt-Rottluff, founded the Brücke in Dresden. His paintings of this period (e.g., Scene in a Forest, 1913; Wallraf-Richartz Mus., Cologne) are characterized by violent color and slashing brushwork. His later works, primarily landscapes, are more tranquil in feeling.
Von Stroheim, Erich (Hans Erich Marie Stroheim von Nordenaall), 1885-1957, Austrian-American film director, writer, and actor. He came to the United States in 1909, and his first appearance as an actor was in Griffith's Birth of a Nation. In 1918 he wrote, directed, and acted in his first film, Blind Husband, and in 1923 his Greed, a landmark in film realism, brought him acclaim. As a director, his attention to minute detail soon earned him a reputation as a spendthrift. Especially noted for his portrayals of Prussian officers, he is perhaps best remembered for Grand Illusion (1937). His last film role in the United States was in Sunset Boulevard (1950).

See T. Curtiss, Von Stroheim (1971, repr. 1973); R. Koszarski, The Man You Loved to Hate: Erich von Stroheim and Hollywood (1983); A. Lennig, Stroheim (2000).

orig. Erich Paul Kramer

(born June 22, 1898, Osnabrück, Ger.—died Sept. 25, 1970, Locarno, Switz.) German-born U.S.-Swiss novelist. Drafted into the German army at age 18, he served in World War I and was wounded several times. He is chiefly remembered for All Quiet on the Western Front (1929), a brutally realistic account of the daily routine of ordinary soldiers and perhaps the best-known and most representative novel about that war. He moved to the U.S. in 1939 and became a U.S. citizen but settled in Switzerland after World War II. His other works include The Road Back (1931), Arc de Triomphe (1946; film, 1948), and The Black Obelisk (1956).

Learn more about Remarque, Erich Maria with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 24, 1876, Wandsbek, Ger.—died Nov. 6, 1960, Kiel, W.Ger.) German naval officer. After serving as chief of staff to an admiral in World War I, he himself rose to the rank of admiral. As naval commander in chief from 1928, he urged the construction of submarines (forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles) and fast cruisers. Appointed grand admiral in 1939, he supervised the invasion of Denmark and Norway in 1940. Differences with Adolf Hitler led to his dismissal from supreme command in 1943. He was sentenced to life in prison at the Nürnberg trials, but he was released because of ill health in 1955.

Learn more about Raeder, Erich with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 21, 1887, Allenstein, Ger.—died Sept. 15, 1953, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) German architect. While studying architecture in Munich, he was influenced by the Blaue Reiter group of Expressionist artists. Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1919–21), a highly sculptural structure, reflects his early preoccupation with science fiction. In the 1920s he designed a number of imaginative structures, including the Schocken stores in Stuttgart (1927) and Chemnitz (1928), notable for their prominent use of glass in strongly horizontal compositions. He fled the Nazis in 1933 and eventually settled in the U.S.; his American works include the Maimonides Hospital, San Francisco (1946).

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Erich Ludendorff, circa 1930.

(born April 9, 1865, Kruszewnia, near Poznań, Prussian Poland—died Dec. 20, 1937, Munich, Ger.) German general. In 1908 he joined the German army general staff and worked under Helmuth von Moltke in revising the Schlieffen Plan. In World War I he was appointed chief of staff to Paul von Hindenburg, and the two won a spectacular victory at the Battle of Tannenberg. In 1916 the two generals were given supreme military control. They tried to conduct a total war by mobilizing the entire forces of the home front, and in 1917 Ludendorff approved unrestricted submarine warfare against the British, which led to the U.S. entry into the war. In 1918, after his offensive on the Western Front failed, he demanded an armistice, but then he insisted the war continue when he realized the severity of the Armistice conditions. Political leaders opposed him, and he resigned his post. Ludendorff insisted he had been betrayed, and for the next 20 years he led a bizarre life, becoming a leader of reactionary political movements and taking part in the Kapp Putsch (1920) and Beer Hall Putsch (1923). He served in Parliament as a National Socialist (1924–28) and developed a belief that “supernational powers”—Jewry, Christianity, Freemasonry—had deprived him and Germany of victory in World War I.

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(born Aug. 25, 1912, Neunkirchen, Ger.—died May 29, 1994, Chile) German communist head of East Germany's Socialist Unity Party (1971–89) and chairman of the Council of State (1976–89). A member of the German Communist Party, he was imprisoned by the Nazis from 1935 to 1945. In 1946 he cofounded and led the Free German Youth movement in East Germany. In 1961 he oversaw the building of the Berlin Wall. He succeeded Walter Ulbricht as head of East Germany, which under his rule was one of the most repressive but also one of the most prosperous of the Soviet-bloc countries. He allowed the growth of some trade and travel ties with West Germany in return for West German financial aid. He was forced to resign with the collapse of communist authority in 1989.

Learn more about Honecker, Erich with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 23, 1900, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.—died March 18, 1980, Muralto, Switz.) German-born U.S. psychoanalyst and social philosopher. A disciple of Sigmund Freud, Fromm joined the Frankfurt school in the 1920s and left Nazi Germany for the U.S in 1933. Taking issue with Freud, he came to believe in the interaction of psychology and society and argued that psychoanalytic principles could be applied to cure cultural ills. He taught at various institutions, including the National University of Mexico (1951–67) and New York University (from 1962). His many books, which had popular as well as academic success, included Escape from Freedom (1941), The Sane Society (1955), and The Crisis of Psychoanalysis (1970); The Art of Loving (1956) became a durable best-seller.

Learn more about Fromm, Erich with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 24, 1876, Wandsbek, Ger.—died Nov. 6, 1960, Kiel, W.Ger.) German naval officer. After serving as chief of staff to an admiral in World War I, he himself rose to the rank of admiral. As naval commander in chief from 1928, he urged the construction of submarines (forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles) and fast cruisers. Appointed grand admiral in 1939, he supervised the invasion of Denmark and Norway in 1940. Differences with Adolf Hitler led to his dismissal from supreme command in 1943. He was sentenced to life in prison at the Nürnberg trials, but he was released because of ill health in 1955.

Learn more about Raeder, Erich with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 21, 1887, Allenstein, Ger.—died Sept. 15, 1953, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) German architect. While studying architecture in Munich, he was influenced by the Blaue Reiter group of Expressionist artists. Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1919–21), a highly sculptural structure, reflects his early preoccupation with science fiction. In the 1920s he designed a number of imaginative structures, including the Schocken stores in Stuttgart (1927) and Chemnitz (1928), notable for their prominent use of glass in strongly horizontal compositions. He fled the Nazis in 1933 and eventually settled in the U.S.; his American works include the Maimonides Hospital, San Francisco (1946).

Learn more about Mendelsohn, Erich with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Erich Paul Kramer

(born June 22, 1898, Osnabrück, Ger.—died Sept. 25, 1970, Locarno, Switz.) German-born U.S.-Swiss novelist. Drafted into the German army at age 18, he served in World War I and was wounded several times. He is chiefly remembered for All Quiet on the Western Front (1929), a brutally realistic account of the daily routine of ordinary soldiers and perhaps the best-known and most representative novel about that war. He moved to the U.S. in 1939 and became a U.S. citizen but settled in Switzerland after World War II. His other works include The Road Back (1931), Arc de Triomphe (1946; film, 1948), and The Black Obelisk (1956).

Learn more about Remarque, Erich Maria with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Erich Ludendorff, circa 1930.

(born April 9, 1865, Kruszewnia, near Poznań, Prussian Poland—died Dec. 20, 1937, Munich, Ger.) German general. In 1908 he joined the German army general staff and worked under Helmuth von Moltke in revising the Schlieffen Plan. In World War I he was appointed chief of staff to Paul von Hindenburg, and the two won a spectacular victory at the Battle of Tannenberg. In 1916 the two generals were given supreme military control. They tried to conduct a total war by mobilizing the entire forces of the home front, and in 1917 Ludendorff approved unrestricted submarine warfare against the British, which led to the U.S. entry into the war. In 1918, after his offensive on the Western Front failed, he demanded an armistice, but then he insisted the war continue when he realized the severity of the Armistice conditions. Political leaders opposed him, and he resigned his post. Ludendorff insisted he had been betrayed, and for the next 20 years he led a bizarre life, becoming a leader of reactionary political movements and taking part in the Kapp Putsch (1920) and Beer Hall Putsch (1923). He served in Parliament as a National Socialist (1924–28) and developed a belief that “supernational powers”—Jewry, Christianity, Freemasonry—had deprived him and Germany of victory in World War I.

Learn more about Ludendorff, Erich with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 25, 1912, Neunkirchen, Ger.—died May 29, 1994, Chile) German communist head of East Germany's Socialist Unity Party (1971–89) and chairman of the Council of State (1976–89). A member of the German Communist Party, he was imprisoned by the Nazis from 1935 to 1945. In 1946 he cofounded and led the Free German Youth movement in East Germany. In 1961 he oversaw the building of the Berlin Wall. He succeeded Walter Ulbricht as head of East Germany, which under his rule was one of the most repressive but also one of the most prosperous of the Soviet-bloc countries. He allowed the growth of some trade and travel ties with West Germany in return for West German financial aid. He was forced to resign with the collapse of communist authority in 1989.

Learn more about Honecker, Erich with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 23, 1900, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.—died March 18, 1980, Muralto, Switz.) German-born U.S. psychoanalyst and social philosopher. A disciple of Sigmund Freud, Fromm joined the Frankfurt school in the 1920s and left Nazi Germany for the U.S in 1933. Taking issue with Freud, he came to believe in the interaction of psychology and society and argued that psychoanalytic principles could be applied to cure cultural ills. He taught at various institutions, including the National University of Mexico (1951–67) and New York University (from 1962). His many books, which had popular as well as academic success, included Escape from Freedom (1941), The Sane Society (1955), and The Crisis of Psychoanalysis (1970); The Art of Loving (1956) became a durable best-seller.

Learn more about Fromm, Erich with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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