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Erfurt

Erfurt

[er-foort]
Erfurt, city (1994 pop. 200,800), capital of Thuringia, central Germany, on the Gera River. It is an industrial and horticultural center and a rail junction. Industries include metalworking and the manufacture of electrical apparatus, shoes, and clothing. The city is also a major exporter of processed foods and seeds. Erfurt is one of the oldest cities of Germany. It was mentioned by St. Boniface in the 8th cent., and Charlemagne later made it a center for trade with the Slavs. Martin Luther studied (1501-5) at its university (opened 1392, closed 1816), and he took his vows as an Augustinian friar at its monastery. Erfurt was a free imperial city and a member of the Hanseatic League. It passed (1664) to the electors of Mainz and (1802) to Prussia. In 1808, Napoleon I and Czar Alexander I met there at the Congress of Erfurt, and the Franco-Russian alliance concluded at Tilsit in 1807 was renewed. At a congress held at Erfurt in 1891 the German Social Democratic party adopted the Erfurt Program (see Socialist parties), which closely followed Marxist theories. Noteworthy buildings of the city include the cathedral (12th-15th cent.) and the 13th-century Church of St. Severus.

City (pop., 2002 est.: 200,126), central Germany. Boniface founded a bishopric in Erfurt in AD 742, and by 805 it was an important centre on the Frankish empire's eastern border. Erfurt was granted municipal rights circa 1250 and joined the Hanseatic League in the 15th century. The city passed to Prussia in 1802, forming part of Prussian Saxony until 1945. Erfurt was the site of the first meeting of the leaders of East and West Germany in 1970. It is dominated by its 12th-century cathedral; other buildings include the monastery where Martin Luther was a monk (1505–08). Erfurt is an important road and railway junction and a commercial centre.

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Erfurt is a city in central Germany. It is the capital of the state of Thuringia with a population of 202,619 (2006).

Erfurt is located 100 km SW of Leipzig, 113 km SW of Kassel and 180 km SE of Hannover. Erfurt Airport can be reached by plane via Munich, Düsseldorf and Hamburg.

Geography

Since the Reunification of Germany on October 3, 1990, Erfurt is the main city nearest to the geographical centre of the country. It lies in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin, within the wide valley of Gera River, a tributary of the Unstrut. To the south, the city is surrounded by hilly forest ("Steigerwald").

History

Erfurt was first mentioned in 742 under the name of "Erphesfurt". It was an important trading town during the Middle Ages near a ford across the Gera river. Together with the other five Thuringian woad-towns of Gotha, Tennstedt, Arnstadt and Langensalza it was the centre of the German woad trade.

In 1349, during the wave of pogroms which followed the Black Plague across Europe, the Jews of Erfurt were rounded up, with more than 100 killed and the rest driven from the city, and the ghetto burned. Recently, the remains of the medieval synagogue have been discovered beneath newer buildings, and are being restored.

In 1392 the University of Erfurt was founded, which was famous in its time, became defunct in 1816, and was refounded in 1994 by the Thuringian state parliament.

Erfurt became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1802, part of the First French Empire in 1806 as Principality of Erfurt, and was returned to Prussia in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars. Although enclosed by Thuringian territory, the city remained part of the Prussian Province of Saxony until 1944. The city was the site of the failed Erfurt Union of German states in 1850.

On April 12, 1945, during World War II, Erfurt was taken by units of the U.S. Third Army under General George Patton. On July 3, American troops left the city and it was occupied by the Soviet Red Army. In contrast to most other major German cities, Erfurt suffered only limited damage from Allied air raids during the war. Erfurt fell in the Soviet Zone of occupation, which would later become East Germany.

After German reunification, Erfurt became the capital of the re-established state of Thuringia.

On April 26, 2002, the student Robert Steinhäuser killed thirteen teachers, two students, a police officer and himself at Erfurt's Gutenberg-Gymnasium school (see Erfurt massacre).

Main sights

Erfurt has preserved an intact medieval city centre.

Erfurt is symbolised by the two churches, Erfurt Cathedral (Mariendom) and Severikirche, which stand directly side by side and together form the emblem of the city. Both churches tower above the townscape and are accessible via huge open stairs.

Another remarkable site is the Krämerbrücke, a bridge crossing the narrow Gera River. The bridge is covered with inhabited buildings. It was built in 1325 with a church on either bridgehead, one of which still functional.

The Augustinerkloster is an old Augustinian monastery. Martin Luther studied in the Augustinerkloster for a few years after 1505.

Culture

Martin Luther attended the University of Erfurt and received his bachelor's and master's degrees there. Luther lived there as a student from 1501-11 and as a monk from 1505–11.

Erfurt is the birthplace of one of Johann Sebastian Bach's cousins, Johann Bernhard Bach, as well as Johann Sebastian Bach's father Johann Ambrosius Bach. Bach's parents were married in a small church that still exists on the main square, Anger. Meister Eckhart and the sociologist Max Weber also lived in the city.

Johann Pachelbel served as organist at the Prediger church in Erfurt. Pachelbel composed approximately seventy pieces for organ while in Erfurt. After 1906 the composer Richard Wetz lived in Erfurt and became the leading person in the town's musical life. His major works were written here, including three symphonies, a Requiem and a Christmas Oratorio.

Erfurt is an important population centre in the fictional United States of Europe in the alternate history book series based on the novel 1632. It is the major city of substantial size located nearest (to the displaced in time and space) town of Grantville, WV whose citizens are the joint protagonists unifying Germany and introducing the industrial revolution 'a few centuries early' during the complications posed by the Thirty Years' War.

Erfurt Theater

Since 2003, the modern new built opera house is home of Theater Erfurt and its Philharmonic Orchestra. The "grand stage" section has 800 seats and the "studio stage" can hold 200 spectators. In September 2005, the opera Waiting for the Barbarians by Philip Glass premiered in the opera house.

The Erfurt Theater has been source of controversy recently. In 2005 a performance of Humperdinck's opera Hänsel und Gretel - stirred up the local press since the performance contained suggestions of pedophilia and incest. The opera was advertised in the program with the addition "for adults only".

On April 12, 2008, a version of Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Un ballo in maschera" directed by Johann Kresnik opened at the Erfurt Theater. The production stirred deep controversy by featuring nude performers in Mickey Mouse masks dancing on the ruins of the World Trade Center and a female singer with a painted on Hitler toothbrush moustache performing a straight arm Nazi salute, along with sinister portrayals of American soldiers, Uncle Sam, and Elvis Presley impersonators. The director described the production as a populist critique of modern American society, aimed at showing up the disparities between rich and poor. The controversy prompted one local politician to call for locals to boycott the performances, but this was largely ignored and the premiere was sold out.

Transport

Erfurt lies on two Bundesstraßen (federal motorways):

  • Bundesstraße 4 from Ilmenau in south to Nordhausen in north and
  • Bundesstraße 7 from Gotha in west to Weimar in east.

Also there are two Autobahnen crossing each other at Erfurter Kreuz nearby: The Bundesautobahn 4 from Frankfurt am Main to Dresden and the Bundesautobahn 71 (Erfurt-Meiningen-Schweinfurt) from Würzburg to Sangerhausen (and Halle (Saale) via Bundesautobahn 38).

There have been trams in the city since 1883. Today there are seven tram lines to most of the parts of Erfurt.

Railways run from Erfurt station to Berlin (via Weimar, Naumburg, Halle and Wittenberg), Dresden (via Weimar, Naumburg, Leipzig and Riesa), Frankfurt am Main (via Gotha, Eisenach, Bebra, Fulda and Hanau), Würzburg (via Arnstadt, Suhl, Meiningen, Bad Neustadt and Schweinfurt), Ilmenau, Saalfeld, Nordhausen (via Sondershausen), Magdeburg (via Sömmerda, Sangerhausen, Staßfurt and Schönebeck), Bad Langensalza and Kassel/Göttingen (via Mühlhausen, Leinefelde-Worbis and Heiligenstadt).

References

External links

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