London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow , located in London, England, is the largest and busiest airport in the United Kingdom. It is the world's third busiest airport for passenger traffic, beaten only by Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport and Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, and it handles more international passenger traffic than any other airport in the world. Heathrow is owned and operated by BAA, which also owns and operates six other UK airports. BAA is itself owned by an international consortium led by the Spanish Ferrovial Group. Heathrow is the primary hub of British Airways, bmi and Virgin Atlantic.
Located west of Central London, England, Heathrow has two parallel main runways running east-west and five terminals. The site covers 12.14 square kilometres (4.69 square miles). Terminal 5 was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 14 March, 2008 and opened to passengers on 27 March, 2008. Construction of Heathrow East, to replace Terminal 2 and The Queen's Building, began in 2008, and is expected to be completed by 2012. Terminals 3 and 4 will also be refurbished during this period. In November 2007 a consultation process began for the building of a new third runway.
Heathrow Airport has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence (Number P527) that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction.
Heathrow is located west of central London, England, near the southern end of the London Borough of Hillingdon and in the historic county of Middlesex. The airport stands on a parcel of land that was designated part of the London Metropolitan Green Belt. To the north, the airport is surrounded by the built-up areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth, Longford and Cranford. To the east are Hounslow and Hatton, and to the south are East Bedfont and Stanwell. To the west, the M25 motorway separates the airport from Colnbrook in Berkshire.
The airport's location to the west of London, and the east-west orientation of its runways, means that airliners usually approach to land directly over the city. Other leading European airports, such as those at Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Paris, are located north or south of their cities, in order to minimise the overflying problem. Another disadvantage of the site is that it is low-lying, at above sea level, and is therefore prone to fog.
Aviation at the location of what is now Heathrow Airport began during World War I, when the site was used as a military airfield. By the 1930s the airfield, then known as the Great Western Aerodrome, was privately owned by Fairey Aviation Company, and was used for aircraft assembly and testing. Commercial traffic used Croydon Airport, which was London's main airport at the time.
In 1943, Heathrow came under the control of the Ministry of Air, to be developed as a Royal Air Force transfer base. Construction of runways began in 1944, on land that was originally acquired from the vicar of Harmondsworth. The new airport was built by Wimpey Construction, and was named after the hamlet Heath Row, which was demolished to make way for the airport, and which was located approximately where Terminal 3 now stands.
In 1953, the first slab of the first modern runway was ceremonially placed by Queen Elizabeth II. She also opened the first permanent terminal building, the Europa Building (now known as Terminal 2), in 1955. On 1 April, 1955, a new 38.8 metre control tower designed by Frederick Gibberd was opened, replacing the original RAF control tower.
The Oceanic Terminal (renamed as Terminal 3 in 1968) opened on 13 November 1961, to handle flight departures for long-haul routes. At this time the airport had a direct helicopter service from central London and gardens on the roof of the terminal building. By the time Terminal 1 was opened in 1968, completing the cluster of buildings at the centre of the airport site, Heathrow was handling 14 million passengers annually.
The location of the original terminals in the centre of the site has since become a constraint to expansion. The decision to locate them there reflected an early assumption that airline passengers would not require extensive car parking, as air travel was then only affordable to the wealthy, who would often be chauffeur-driven.
In 1970, Terminal 3 was expanded with the addition of an arrivals building. Other facilities were also added, including the UK's first moving walkways. Heathrow's two main runways, 9L-27R and 9R-27L, were also extended to their current lengths in order to accommodate new large jets such as the Boeing 747. The other runways were closed to facilitate terminal expansions – except for Runway 23, which was preserved for crosswind landings until 2002.
In 1977, the London Underground Picadilly Line was extended to Heathrow; connecting the airport with Central London in just under an hour. On 23 June 1998 the Heathrow Express train was inaugurated, providing a direct rail service to London's Paddington station, via a specially-constructed line between the airport and the Great Western Main Line.
Continued growth in passenger numbers to 30 million annually by the early 1980s led to the need for more terminal space. Terminal 4 was constructed to the south of the southern runway, next to the existing cargo terminal, and away from the three older terminals. It was connected with Terminals 1, 2 and 3 by the already-existing Heathrow Cargo Tunnel. Terminal 4 was opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales in April 1986, and became the home for then newly privatised British Airways.
During the 1980s and 1990s, since privatisation, BAA has expanded the proportion of terminal space allocated to retailing activities, and has invested in the development of retail activity. This has included expanding terminal areas to provide more shops and restaurants, and routing passengers through shopping areas, in order to maximise their exposure to retail offerings.
Of Heathrow's 67 million annual passengers, 11% travel to UK destinations, 43% are short-haul international travellers, and 46% are long-haul. The busiest single destination in terms of passenger numbers is New York, with over 3.4 million passengers travelling between Heathrow and JFK / Newark airports in 2006. The airport has five passenger terminals (Terminals 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and a cargo terminal. Terminal 5 opened to passengers on 27 March 2008 and will be fully completed with the opening of its second satellite building in 2010.
Originally, Heathrow had six runways, arranged in three pairs at different angles, with the passenger terminal in the centre. With growth in the required length for runways, Heathrow now has just two parallel runways running east-west. Runway 23, a short runway for use in strong south-westerly winds, was decommissioned in 2005 and now forms part of a taxiway. The Department for Transport has issued a 'consultation document' in which one option is the construction of a third parallel east-west runway for frequent use, involving the demolition of residential areas.
In 2006, the new £105 million Pier 6 was completed at Heathrow's Terminal 3 in order to accommodate the Airbus A380 superjumbo, providing four new aircraft stands. Other modifications totalling in excess of £340 million have also been carried out across the airfield in readiness for the Airbus A380, and the newly opened Terminal 5 is also fully compatible with the A380. The first A380 test flight into Heathrow took place on 18 May 2006, but following delays to the aircraft's production, scheduled services did not commence from Heathrow until 18 March 2008, when Singapore Airlines flight SQ308 touched down from Singapore carrying 470 passengers, marking the first ever European commercial flight by the Airbus A380.
Heathrow Airport has Anglican, Catholic, Free Church, Muslim, Sikh, Hindu and Jewish Chaplains. There is a multi-faith prayer room and counselling room in each terminal, in addition to St. George's Interdenominational Chapel which is located in an underground bunker adjacent to the old Control Tower, where Christian services take place. The chaplains organise and lead prayers at certain times in the prayer room. There is an Anglican Service every Tuesday and Wednesday, daily Catholic Mass and Free Church prayers in the Chapel.
Heathrow's facilities were designed to accommodate either 45 or 55 million passengers annually according to BAA (55 million the figure presented to the T5 Inquiry, 45 million the figure used for the consultation into the third runway). With numbers now approaching 70 million and runway utilisation averaging 98%, it is difficult for existing airlines to obtain landing slots to enable them to increase their services from the airport, or for new airlines to start operations. For the same reason the airport has become crowded and subject to delays, for which it has been criticised in recent years and in 2007 the airport was voted the world's least favourite alongside Chicago O'Hare in a TripAdvisor survey.
Aircraft destined for Heathrow usually enter its airspace via one of four main 'reporting points': Bovingdon (BNN) over Hertfordshire, Lambourne (LAM) over Essex, Biggin Hill (BIG) over Bromley and Ockham (OCK) over Surrey. Each is defined by a VOR radio-navigational beacon. When the airport is busy, aircraft will orbit in the associated holds. These reporting points/holds lie respectively to the north-west, north-east, south-east and south-west of the London conurbation.
Air traffic controllers at Heathrow Approach Control (based in Swanwick, Hampshire) then guide the aircraft to their final approach, merging aircraft from the four holds into a single stream of traffic, sometimes as close as apart. Considerable use is made of continuous descent approach techniques to minimise the environmental effects of incoming aircraft, particularly at night. Once an aircraft is established on its final approach, control is handed over to Heathrow Tower.
Because aircraft generate significantly more noise on departure than when landing, there is a preference for "westerly operations" during daytime operations. In this mode aircraft depart towards the west and approach from the east over London, thereby minimising the impact of noise on the most densely populated areas. Heathrow's two runways generally operate in 'segregated mode' whereby arriving aircraft are allocated to one runway and departing aircraft to the other. To further reduce noise nuisance to people beneath the approach and departure routes, the use of runways 27R and 27L is swapped at 3 pm each day if the wind is from the west. When easterly landings are in progress there is no alternation; 09L remains the landing runway and 09R the departure runway due to the Cranford protocol. Occasionally landings are allowed on the nominated departure runway, to help reduce airborne delays and to position landing aircraft closer to their terminal, thus reducing taxi times.
Night-time flights at Heathrow are subject to restrictions. Between 11.00 p.m. and 7.00 a.m. the noisiest aircraft (rated QC/8 and QC/16) cannot be scheduled to operate at all. In addition, between 11.30 p.m. and 6.00 a.m. (the night quota period) there are three limits:
Policing of the airport is the responsibility of the aviation security unit of the Metropolitan Police, however the army, including armoured vehicles of the Household Cavalry, has occasionally been deployed to the airport during periods of heightened security. Heathrow's reputation for thefts has led to it sometimes being referred to as 'Thiefrow'.
As BAA owns London's three major airports and therefore has a monopolistic position, the amount it is allowed to charge airlines to land aeroplanes at Heathrow is heavily regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). Until 1 April 2003, the annual increase in landing charge per passenger was capped at inflation minus 3%. From 2003 to 2007, charges increased by inflation plus 6.5% per year, taking the fee to £9.28 per passenger in 2007. In March 2008, the CAA announced that the charge would be allowed to increase by 23.5% to £12.80 from 1 April 2008, and by inflation plus 7.5% for each of the following four years.
In addition, air traffic between Heathrow and the United States was strictly governed by the countries' bilateral Bermuda II treaty. The treaty originally allowed only British Airways, Pan Am, and TWA to fly from Heathrow to the US. In 1991 PAA and TWA sold their rights to United Airlines and American Airlines respectively, and Virgin Atlantic was added to the list of airlines allowed to operate on these routes. In 2002, American Airlines and British Airways announced plans to coordinate the scheduling of their trans-Atlantic routes but plans were dropped after the United States Department of Transportation made approval conditional on the granting of further access slots to Heathrow to other US airlines. American Airlines and British Airways considered the slots too valuable and dropped the plans. The Bermuda bilateral agreement conflicted with the Right of Establishment of the United Kingdom in terms of its membership in the EU, and as a consequence the UK was ordered to drop the agreement in 2004. A new "open skies" agreement was signed by the United States and the European Union on 30 April 2007, and came into effect on 30 March 2008.
Whilst the cost of landing at Heathrow is determined by the CAA and BAA, the allocation of landing slots to airlines is carried out by Airport Co-ordination Limited (ACL).
The operator of Heathrow, BAA, claims that Heathrow is the "world's busiest international airport", but Heathrow is only the world's third-busiest airport by total passenger traffic, after Atlanta-Hartsfield-Jackson and Chicago O'Hare, which are also international airports. However, Heathrow has the highest number of international passengers.
In 2006 Heathrow was the busiest airport in Europe in terms of total passenger traffic (18.8% more passengers than at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport and 27.9% more than at Frankfurt Airport), but it was third behind Charles de Gaulle and Frankfurt in terms of plane movements (11.9% fewer landings and take offs than at Charles de Gaulle, and 2.5% fewer than at Frankfurt). Heathrow airport was fourth in terms of cargo traffic (36.9% less cargo than at Charles de Gaulle, 36.8% less than at Frankfurt, and 14.2% less than at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport).
With only two runways operating at over 98% of their capacity, Heathrow has little room for growth. In order to increase traffic, BAA has proposed using the existing two runways in 'mixed mode' whereby aircraft would be allowed to take-off and land on the same runway. This would increase the airport's capacity from its current 480,000 movements per year to as many as 550,000 according to British Airways CEO Willie Walsh. BAA has also proposed to build a third runway to the north of the airport, which would significantly increase traffic capacity (see Future expansion below).
In the short term the opening of Terminal 5 in 2008 will relieve pressure on terminal facilities, allowing modest growth from the use of larger aircraft such as the Airbus A380. However with passenger traffic at Charles de Gaulle growing by 5.8% to 59.3 million during the 12 months to September 2007, compared with Heathrow's fall of 0.4% to 67.6 million during the same period, it is possible that CDG ---- with its four runways operating at only 73.5% capacity ---- could overtake Heathrow by 2010.
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% Change|
|1||John F. Kennedy International Airport||2,839,221||3.16|
|3||Amsterdam Airport Schiphol||1,799,214||2.54|
|4||Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport||1,789,538||9.19|
|5||O'Hare International Airport||1,604,770||5.51|
|6||Dubai International Airport||1,571,472||14.33|
|7||Hong Kong International Airport||1,453,229||2.57|
|9||Los Angeles International Airport||1,405,694||1.70|
|10||Madrid Barajas Airport||1,180,326||5.33|
|11||Singapore Changi Airport||1,074,672||1.07|
|13||Washington Dulles International Airport||1,054,834||1.40|
|14||San Francisco International Airport||1,032,103||0.41|
|15||Toronto Pearson International Airport||1,023,559||2.10|
Terminal 1 was opened in 1968 and was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II in May 1969. In 2005, a substantial redesign and redevelopment of Terminal 1 was completed, which saw the opening of the new Eastern Extension, doubling the departure lounge in size and creating additional seating and retail space. Terminal 1 handles most of Heathrow's domestic and Irish routes along with some long haul routes and European routes.
Terminal 2 is Heathrow's oldest terminal and was opened as the Europa Building in 1955. Terminal 2, as well as the adjacent Queens Building, will close in 2008 after the opening of Terminal 5, to allow for the construction of the new Heathrow East terminal. According to BAA, Terminal 2 will be demolished in 2008. Terminal 2 handles mainly European routes.
Terminal 3 was opened as The Oceanic Terminal on 13 November 1961 to handle flight departures for long-haul routes. At this time the airport had a direct helicopter service to Central London from the gardens on the roof of the terminal building. The Oceanic Terminal was renamed as Terminal 3 in 1968 and was expanded in 1970 with the addition of an arrivals building. Other facilities were also added, including the UK's first moving walkways. In 2006, the new £105 million Pier 6 was completed in order to accommodate the Airbus A380 superjumbo; Singapore Airlines now operate regular flights from Terminal 3 using the Airbus A380.
Redevelopment of Terminal 3's forecourt by the addition of a new four lane drop-off area and a large pedestrianised plaza, complete with canopy to the front of the terminal building was completed in 2007; these improvements were intended to improve passengers' experiences, reduce traffic congestion and improve security. BAA also have plans for a £1bn upgrade of the rest of the terminal over the next ten years.
Terminal 4 was constructed to the south of the southern runway next to the existing cargo terminal, away from the three older terminals, and was connected with Terminals 1, 2 and 3 by the already-existing Heathrow Cargo Tunnel. Terminal 4 was opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales in April 1986, and became the home for then newly-privatised British Airways.
Terminal 4 will also benefit from a major upgrade to its existing facilities. As part of the redevelopment of Terminal 4, the amount of natural light entering the building will be assessed and the check-in facilities and airside departure lounge will also be upgraded. Work is now underway on a complete refurbishment and modernisation of Terminal 4's forecourt to improve passengers' experiences, reduce traffic congestion and improve security.
The possibility of a fifth terminal at Heathrow emerged as early as 1982, when there was debate over whether the expansion of Stansted or the expansion of Heathrow (advocated by BA) was the way forward for the UK aviation industry. Richard Rogers was selected to design the terminal in 1989 and BAA formally announced its proposal for T5 in May 1992, submitting a formal planning application on 17 February 1993. A public inquiry into the proposals began on 16 May 1995 and lasted nearly four years, finally ending after sitting for 525 days on 17 March 1999. Finally on 20 November 2001, more than eight years after the initial planning application, then-transport minister Stephen Byers announced the British government's decision to grant planning permission for the building of a fifth passenger terminal at Heathrow.
Built at a cost of £4.3 billion, the new terminal is located on the western side of the airport on the site of the former Perry Oaks sewage works, between the northern and southern runways. The four storeys of the main terminal building (Concourse A) are covered by a single-span undulating steel frame roof, stretching from east to west. In addition to the main terminal building, there are also two satellite buildings linked to the main terminal by an underground people mover transit system. The first satellite (Concourse B) includes dedicated aircraft stands for the Airbus A380; Concourse C is currently under construction and scheduled to open in 2010. In total, Terminal 5 has 60 aircraft stands and capacity for 30 million passengers annually; this will enable Heathrow to handle up to 90 million passengers a year, up from its previous figure of 68 million (compared with a design capacity of 45 million). There are more than 100 shops and restaurants.
The transport network around the airport has been extended to cope with the increase in passenger numbers. A dedicated motorway spur has been built from the M25 between junctions 14 and 15 to the terminal, which includes a 3,800 space multi-storey car park. A more distant long-stay car park for business passengers will be linked to the terminal by a personal rapid transit system, which will open in 2009. New branches of both the Heathrow Express and the Underground's Piccadilly Line serve a new shared Heathrow Terminal 5 station, which also has space for a third pair of tracks for future additional rail services. BAA are currently consulting on the route of a new rail link, called Heathrow Airtrack, to Staines High Street and through direct services to Reading, Guildford and London Waterloo. The terminal is also connected to Terminals 1, 2 and 3 by the Heathrow Airside Road Tunnel.
Queen Elizabeth II officially opened Terminal 5 in a ceremony on 14 March 2008. Used exclusively by British Airways, the terminal opened for passenger use on 27 March 2008, with flight 26 from Hong Kong its first arrival. The first departure was Flight 302 to Paris at 06:20 GMT. However it quickly became apparent that the new terminal was not operating smoothly, and British Airways cancelled 34 flights and was later forced to suspend baggage check-in. Over the following 10 days some 28,000 bags failed to travel with their owners, and over 500 flights were cancelled. British Airways was not able to operate its full schedule from Terminal 5 until 8 April 2008.
A number of problems with the terminal's IT systems, coupled with insufficient testing and staff training, were the principal reasons for the difficulties which caused BA to postpone the transfer of its long-haul flights from Terminal 4 to Terminal 5. Consequently, BA will be occupying parts of Terminals 1 and 4 for longer than originally planned, with knock-on effects on other airlines scheduled to move into those areas.
BAA announced in November 2005 that when Terminal 5 opens Terminal 2 will be closed to allow the Heathrow East scheme to be built. This will see Terminal 2 and the Queen's Building offices being replaced by a new terminal capable of handling 30 million people; five million fewer than Terminals 1 and 2 are currently used by, although considerably more than the design capacity of the existing buildings. Work is planned to start in 2008 and to be completed by 2012, in time for the London Olympics, although reported delays are making this target unlikely. Demolition of Terminal 2 is now scheduled for 2009. The plan envisages the complete realignment of piers more logically, the building of new ones on the now defunct cross-wind runway, and to provide for an increase in capacity, in a site taking up roughly the same amount of space as T5. The entire project is set to cost £1-1.5bn. Planning permission was granted in May 2007 on condition that the project meets a number of 'green' targets.
The current proposals for a third runway to the north of the current airport includes an additional terminal, Terminal 6. The project has proven controversial by environmental groups. The government is to make a decision on the plans at the end of 2008. Gordon Brown has said he intends to fully approve the plans.
Heathrow is accessible via the nearby M4 motorway and A4 road (Terminals 1–3), the M25 motorway (Terminals 4 and 5), and the A30 road (Terminal 4). There are drop off and pick up areas at all terminals and short and long stay multi-storey car parks. Additionally, there are car parks (not run by BAA) just outside the airport, these are connected to the terminals by shuttle buses. Heathrow airport is also served by taxi services.
Four parallel tunnels under one of the runways connect the M4 motorway and the A4 road to Terminals 1–3. The two larger tunnels are each two lanes wide and are used for motorised traffic. The two smaller tunnels were originally reserved for pedestrians and bicycles; to increase traffic capacity the cycle lanes have been modified to each take a single lane of cars, although bicycles still have priority over cars. Pedestrian access to the smaller tunnels has been discontinued, with the free bus services being the alternative.
There are (mainly off-road) bicycle routes almost to the terminals. Free bicycle parking places are available in car parks 1 and 1A, though use of the left-luggage services may be more secure. Free specialist maps showing cycle routes are published by Transport for London - 'London Cycling Guide 6' covers Terminals 1, 2 & 3 while 'London Cycling Guide 9' covers Terminal 4 (as of the June 2007 revision).
One coach on each Heathrow Connect train has an area reserved for wheelchairs and bicycles (wheelchairs have priority). Heathrow Express trains have space for three bicycles. There are rush-hour restrictions: unfolded bicycles are not allowed on trains due to arrive at Paddington between 07:45 and 09:45, or departing between 16:30 and 18:30, Monday to Friday.
If luggage and conditions permit, it is much cheaper (about one third the price) to travel by train between Paddington and Hayes & Harlington and then cycle the remaining two miles (3 km).
The major airlines at Heathrow, in particular British Airways, have long advocated construction of a new third runway at Heathrow. A sixth terminal would be likely to accompany the new runway, and the airport's capacity would be increased to 115 million passengers per year. On 16 December 2003 Transport Secretary Alistair Darling released a white paper on the future of air transport in the UK. A key proposal of the paper was that a new 2000 metre runway suitable for use only by short-haul aircraft would be built at Heathrow by 2020 provided that targets on environmental issues such as aircraft noise, traffic congestion and pollution could be met.
In December 2006 the DFT published a progress report on the strategy which confirmed the original vision, and in November 2007 the government started a public consultation on proposals for a longer third runway. However proposed flight paths show integration from runway 3 into long-haul west-bound routings suggesting that the desired length will eventually be similar to that of the existing runways. The consultation process includes proposals to remove the existing runway alternation for landings, and also to allow departures from both runways over London (previously banned under the Cranford Agreement) when wind direction requires. If approved, the new runway would open around 2020.
The continued expansion of Heathrow Airport is opposed by some economists, who claim that with Peak Oil being predicted within the next five years, there will be no demand for the runway by the time it is built. Environmental campaigners are concerned about increases of CO2 emissions, Londoners are concerned about noise and local residents concerned about their communities.
Some 700 homes, a church and eight grade II listed buildings would have to be demolished or abandoned, the high street in Harmondsworth split, a graveyard "bulldozed" and the "entire village of Sipson could disappear". John McDonnell, MP for Hayes and Harlington has suggested that up to 4,000 houses would actually have to be demolished or abandoned, however aviation minister Jim Fitzpatrick defended the plans, saying anyone evicted from their home as a result of expansion would be fully compensated and BAA have committed to preserving the Grade I listed church and tithe barn at Harmondsworth, and have assured protection of the value of properties blighted by a possible third runway.
The government has been criticised for working too closely with BAA in designing tests to determine whether noise and air pollution caused by the proposed runway would exceed designated limits . However the Department for Transport defended the co-operation, stating that "it wouldn’t be sensible or indeed possible to do the work without the expertise of the airport operator.
The World Development Movement has claimed that the proposed additional flights from Heathrow’s third runway would emit the same amount of CO2 per year as the whole of Kenya. the Transport Secretary at the time Ruth Kelly, stated that carbon emissions will not actually rise overall in the environment since carbon trading will be used to ensure that these increases from Heathrow are offset by reductions elsewhere in the economy. However Friends of the Earth claim that "Plans to bring aviation into the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) will barely affect the rapid growth in aviation’s carbon emissions".
A protest camp, the Camp for Climate Action, took place close to the airport in August 2007 and attracted some 2,000 protesters, along with considerable media attention. Prior to the camp's start, BAA had attempted to get court approval for an injunction to limit their right to protest which became known as the "Mother of all Injunctions". BAA said the injunction was intended to protect the security of staff and passengers and that "flights and passengers were unaffected by the camp".
Since the 1970s, there have been proposals to replace Heathrow by a new airport located in the Thames Estuary. Proponents of these schemes argue that flights would no longer arrive or depart over densely populated areas of London, and costs are estimated at £2billion, less than the construction of a third runway at Heathrow. However, surface access to London and South-East England would be more difficult than at Heathrow, and the area proposed is in the path of migratory bird routes which could cause safety concerns for aircraft, as well as the destruction of natural habitats. The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, has announced plans for a feasibility study for an airport north of the Isle of Sheppey.
|Destinations by Region|
Now that Terminal 5 is open, the allocation of airlines to terminals at Heathrow will change. The new arrangements will largely be based around which alliance each airline belongs to. The transfer will be completed over 26 months starting from March 2008.
After these moves, but before Heathrow East opens, Heathrow Terminal arrangements will be as follows: