England, John

England, John

England, John, 1786-1842, Irish Roman Catholic churchman in America, b. Cork. He studied, was ordained, and ministered to several parishes in Co. Cork. His parishes were poor ones, but he became well known for his zeal for Catholic Emancipation and for advocating equality of his church with the Anglicans in Ireland. England was consecrated bishop of the new see of Charleston, S.C., in 1820 and moved to America. His diocese included the Carolinas and Georgia. Notable from the beginning for his intense interest in all things American, he traveled throughout his diocese continually, going many miles if necessary to visit even one of his coreligionists. He was especially devoted to the needs of the blacks in his diocese.

See P. K. Guilday, Life and Times of John England, 1786-1842 (2 vol., 1927, repr. 1969).

The 1185 expedition of the future King John of England to Ireland has attracted much historical debate due to the lack of government records available and the subsequent reliance on sources such as the Irish Annals and the writings of Gerald of Wales.

The subject of John going to Ireland first came into question under the reign of his father, Henry II specifically with the Council of Oxford in the year 1177. This council agreed to have John made King of Ireland. This would appear to have been a strategy of his father's to divide his Angevin possessions between his four sons. The approval of Pope Alexander III was sought to have John crowned King of Ireland. Disagreements with first Alexander III and then his successor Pope Lucius III caused this to be delayed and instead John went as only Lord of Ireland.

In 1184 arrangements were made for John's departure with the sending of John Cumin and Philip of Worcester to prepare the ground for John's arrival. John arrived in Ireland in April 1185, landing at Waterford with around 300 Knights and numerous foot soldiers and archers.

Upon his arrival in Ireland, John and his retinue were greeted by numerous unnamed Gaelic Irish leaders. It is said that upon seeing these strange long bearded Kings, John and his retinue laughed and pulled them about by their beards! We are told by Gerald that the Irish then complained to their overlords — men such as Rory O'Connor — of how John was, "an ill-mannered child… from whom no good could be hoped". Aside from upsetting these rulers, John also at this time engaged in a vigorous program of extending land grants to trusted royal administrators such as Theobald Walter, William de Burgh, Gilbert Pipard and Bertram de Verdun as well as other minor land grants to lesser figures. These leading noblemen would go on to become the next generation of English colonials in Ireland and men like Walter would breed a new family generation — the Butlers — who would in time come to be an influential part of Ireland's history.

During his stay in Ireland, John largely followed the route of his father Henry II, landing in Waterford and ending up in Dublin. John's expedition founded several castles along the way, especially in Western Waterford and Southern Tipperary , and also established the foundations of administration and law which he later expanded upon in his second expedition in 1210.

John left Ireland in December and returned to England. Scholars have largely agreed that this was most likely to do with the presence of Hugh de Lacy but it is also likely that John ran out of money. It has been suggested that his departure was a setback in much broader plan to set up administrative structures in Ireland in order to control the unruly Barons via loyal, royalist forces such as Walter, De Burgh and De Verdon and that when De Lacy began to threaten his position, he escaped back to the safety of England. What is generally perceived, both contemporarily and in modern scholarship as a feckless attitude has given him a bad reputation and caused his first expedition to be viewed unfairly.

Upon his departure, his father Henry granted the office of justiciar to the Baron John de Courcy, who had massive influence in Ulster. In 1186 Hugh De Lacy was assassinated by an Irishman and plans were made to send John back to Ireland. However, the death of his brother, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, in France cancelled these plans and John did not return to Ireland until his second expedition in 1210.

Bibliography

The following works were used in the composition of this article and are especially useful for this area of history:

  • Duffy S., ‘Ireland in the Middle Ages’, London (1997).
  • Duffy S., ‘John and Ireland: the Origins of Englands Irish Problem’ found in Church S.D., ‘King John: New Interpretations’, Woodbridge (1999).
  • Flanagan M.T., ‘Household favorites: Angevin royal agents in Ireland under Henry II and John’ found in Smith A.P., ‘Studies in Early Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and Literature’, Dublin (2000).
  • Frame R., ‘Colonial Ireland 1169–1369’, Dublin (1981).
  • Frame R., ‘The Political Development of the British Isles 1100–1400’, Oxford (1990).
  • Lydon J., ‘The English in Medieval Ireland’, Dublin (1984).
  • Lydon J., ‘The Lordship of Ireland in the Middle Ages’, Dublin (1972).
  • Orpen G.H., ‘Ireland under the Normans, Vol. II’, Oxford (1911).
  • Otway-Ruthven A.J., ‘A History of Medieval Ireland’, London (1968)
  • Robert Bartlett, Gerald of Wales (c.1146–1223), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford (2004) — accessed 31 Oct 2004.
  • Trans: Hennesey W., ‘The Annals of Loch Cé: a chronicle of Irish affairs from A.D. 1014 to A.D. 1590’, London (1871).
  • Warren W.L., ‘John in Ireland, 1185’ found in, Bissy & Jupp, ‘Essays presented to Michael Roberts’, Belfast (1976).
  • Warren W.L., ‘Lord of Ireland — a lost opportunity’ found in King John, London (1961).
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