Definitions

Emanuel

Emanuel

[ih-man-yoo-uhl]
Leutze, Emanuel, 1816-68, American historical painter, b. Germany. In 1859 he settled in the United States, working in Washington, D.C., and New York City. His pictures are chiefly English and American historical episodes, memorable more for their patriotic than for their aesthetic value. The most famous example is Washington Crossing the Delaware (Metropolitan Mus.). For the Capitol at Washington, D. C., he painted a gigantic mural, Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way.
Lasker, Emanuel, 1868-1941, German chess player. He won the world championship in 1894 when he defeated Wilhelm Steinitz and held it until he was defeated by José Raúl Capablanca in 1921. Lasker studied the games of his opponents for their weaknesses and predilections in technique and played primarily against the temperament of his opponents. He was a master in closed positions.

See his Common Sense in Chess (1896; rev. ed. by D. A. Mitchell, 1965), Lasker's Manual of Chess (1934), and The Games of Emanuel Lasker, Chess Champion (ed. by J. Gilchrist, 2 vol., 1955-58).

Feuermann, Emanuel, 1902-42, Austrian-born virtuoso cellist. He appeared with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra at the age of 11 and later (1917-23) taught at the Cologne Conservatory. From 1929 until 1933, when he fled to Switzerland, he taught at the Berlin Hochschule. His concerts in Europe and the United States established him as one of the world's greatest cellists. In 1938 he emigrated to the United States and joined the faculty of the Curtis Institute of Music, Philadelphia, in 1941.

See biography by A. Morreau (2003).

Swedenborg, Emanuel, 1688-1772, Swedish scientist, religious teacher, and mystic. His religious system, sometimes called Swedenborgianism, is largely incorporated in the Church of the New Jerusalem, founded some years after his death. His father was Bishop Swedberg, professor at Uppsala Univ. The name became Swedenborg when the family was ennobled (1719). Emanuel traveled extensively and was made (1716) assessor of the Royal College of Mines; his engineering skill made him widely known. He took active part in the proceedings of the house of nobles, where he showed himself an ardent reformer. A series of scientific works by him began to appear in 1734. The first, Principia, was an attempt to trace the system of the world philosophically. He studied almost every field of scientific investigation and wrote copiously, anticipating in many instances later discoveries and inventions. His studies of man in works on the animal kingdom, the human brain, and psychology were published before 1747, when he resigned his post and gave himself to the contemplation of spiritual matters, especially to the work of making clear to mankind the true inner doctrines of the divine Word as he claimed that they were revealed to him by direct insight into the spiritual world after "heaven was opened" to him in 1745. Visions and communication with spirits and angels helped prepare him to set forth the teachings of what he termed the New Church, the inauguration of which he believed to have taken place in 1757 with the second coming of Christ. He claimed to have received from the Lord himself the true sense of the Scriptures. His expositions of Genesis and Exodus were published as Arcana Coelestia (1749-56). Of the many works that followed, a number have been published in English, among them Heaven and Hell; Divine Love and Wisdom; True Christian Religion, stating fully his system of doctrine; and the Apocalypse Revealed. His writings have been translated into numerous other languages. It was not Swedenborg's intention to establish a new sect. In his mind the New Church might include members of any Christian churches. The latter part of his life he spent partly in London, partly in Amsterdam and Stockholm. In 1810 a society was founded for publishing Swedenborg's works in English. In Stockholm lithographed facsimiles of his manuscripts were issued in 1869-70, and an 18-volume edition of his writings was published between 1901 and 1916.

See R. F. Tafel, ed., Documents Concerning Swedenborg (1857-77); biographies by G. Trobridge (4th ed. 1968) and C. S. Sigstedt (1971); studies by H. A. Keller (1927, repr. 1972), I. Jonsson (tr. 1971), and R. Larsen et al., ed. (1988).

Besides being a common first name, Emanuel (sometimes spelled Emmanuel or Immanuel) may refer to:

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