Definitions

Emanuel

Emanuel

[ih-man-yoo-uhl]
Leutze, Emanuel, 1816-68, American historical painter, b. Germany. In 1859 he settled in the United States, working in Washington, D.C., and New York City. His pictures are chiefly English and American historical episodes, memorable more for their patriotic than for their aesthetic value. The most famous example is Washington Crossing the Delaware (Metropolitan Mus.). For the Capitol at Washington, D. C., he painted a gigantic mural, Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way.
Lasker, Emanuel, 1868-1941, German chess player. He won the world championship in 1894 when he defeated Wilhelm Steinitz and held it until he was defeated by José Raúl Capablanca in 1921. Lasker studied the games of his opponents for their weaknesses and predilections in technique and played primarily against the temperament of his opponents. He was a master in closed positions.

See his Common Sense in Chess (1896; rev. ed. by D. A. Mitchell, 1965), Lasker's Manual of Chess (1934), and The Games of Emanuel Lasker, Chess Champion (ed. by J. Gilchrist, 2 vol., 1955-58).

Feuermann, Emanuel, 1902-42, Austrian-born virtuoso cellist. He appeared with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra at the age of 11 and later (1917-23) taught at the Cologne Conservatory. From 1929 until 1933, when he fled to Switzerland, he taught at the Berlin Hochschule. His concerts in Europe and the United States established him as one of the world's greatest cellists. In 1938 he emigrated to the United States and joined the faculty of the Curtis Institute of Music, Philadelphia, in 1941.

See biography by A. Morreau (2003).

Swedenborg, Emanuel, 1688-1772, Swedish scientist, religious teacher, and mystic. His religious system, sometimes called Swedenborgianism, is largely incorporated in the Church of the New Jerusalem, founded some years after his death. His father was Bishop Swedberg, professor at Uppsala Univ. The name became Swedenborg when the family was ennobled (1719). Emanuel traveled extensively and was made (1716) assessor of the Royal College of Mines; his engineering skill made him widely known. He took active part in the proceedings of the house of nobles, where he showed himself an ardent reformer. A series of scientific works by him began to appear in 1734. The first, Principia, was an attempt to trace the system of the world philosophically. He studied almost every field of scientific investigation and wrote copiously, anticipating in many instances later discoveries and inventions. His studies of man in works on the animal kingdom, the human brain, and psychology were published before 1747, when he resigned his post and gave himself to the contemplation of spiritual matters, especially to the work of making clear to mankind the true inner doctrines of the divine Word as he claimed that they were revealed to him by direct insight into the spiritual world after "heaven was opened" to him in 1745. Visions and communication with spirits and angels helped prepare him to set forth the teachings of what he termed the New Church, the inauguration of which he believed to have taken place in 1757 with the second coming of Christ. He claimed to have received from the Lord himself the true sense of the Scriptures. His expositions of Genesis and Exodus were published as Arcana Coelestia (1749-56). Of the many works that followed, a number have been published in English, among them Heaven and Hell; Divine Love and Wisdom; True Christian Religion, stating fully his system of doctrine; and the Apocalypse Revealed. His writings have been translated into numerous other languages. It was not Swedenborg's intention to establish a new sect. In his mind the New Church might include members of any Christian churches. The latter part of his life he spent partly in London, partly in Amsterdam and Stockholm. In 1810 a society was founded for publishing Swedenborg's works in English. In Stockholm lithographed facsimiles of his manuscripts were issued in 1869-70, and an 18-volume edition of his writings was published between 1901 and 1916.

See R. F. Tafel, ed., Documents Concerning Swedenborg (1857-77); biographies by G. Trobridge (4th ed. 1968) and C. S. Sigstedt (1971); studies by H. A. Keller (1927, repr. 1972), I. Jonsson (tr. 1971), and R. Larsen et al., ed. (1988).

(born Jan. 29, 1688, Stockholm, Swed.—died March 29, 1772, London, Eng.) Swedish scientist, theologian, and mystic. After graduating from the University of Uppsala, he spent five years abroad studying the natural sciences. On his return he began publication of Sweden's first scientific journal, Daedelus Hyperboreas, and Charles XIII appointed him assessor with the Royal Board of Mines. His writing gradually shifted toward philosophy of nature and metaphysics, in concert with his growing belief that the universe had a basically spiritual structure. In 1744 he had a vision of Christ, and in 1745 he received a call to abandon worldly learning. He spent the rest of his career interpreting the Bible and relating what he had seen in his visions. He maintained that God was the power and life within all creatures and that the Christian Trinity represented the three essential qualities of God: love, wisdom, and activity. He believed redemption consisted in humankind's being recreated in God's image through Christ's glorification. He published more than 30 works, including The True Christian Religion (1771). Societies were soon founded to propagate his pantheistic teaching, notably the New Jerusalem Church, established in London in 1787. Swedenborgians came to the U.S. in the 1790s. See pantheism.

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(born Dec. 30, 1873, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 4, 1944, New York City) U.S. politician. After working in the Fulton fish market to help support his family, he began his political career with a job from Tammany Hall (1895). In the state assembly (1903–15), he rose to speaker, then served in city political posts. As governor of New York (1919–20, 1923–28) he worked for improved housing, child welfare, and efficient government. In 1928 he won the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party, the first Roman Catholic to do so, but he was easily defeated by Herbert Hoover. He later opposed the New Deal programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt and supported Republican presidential candidates for president in 1936 and 1940.

Learn more about Smith, Alfred E(manuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 24, 1868, Berlinchen, Prussia—died Jan. 11, 1941, New York, N.Y., U.S.) German chess master and mathematician. He first won the world chess championship in 1894 and retained the h1 until his defeat by Jose Capablanca in 1921; his term remains the longest reign as champion. As the first chess master to demand high fees, he helped strengthen the financial status of chess professionals. He wrote the classic Common Sense in Chess (1896) as well as books on mathematics and philosophy. As a Jew, he was forced to leave Nazi Germany in 1933. With the loss of his property, he ended his eight-year retirement from chess, once again competing at the highest level.

Learn more about Lasker, Emanuel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 29, 1688, Stockholm, Swed.—died March 29, 1772, London, Eng.) Swedish scientist, theologian, and mystic. After graduating from the University of Uppsala, he spent five years abroad studying the natural sciences. On his return he began publication of Sweden's first scientific journal, Daedelus Hyperboreas, and Charles XIII appointed him assessor with the Royal Board of Mines. His writing gradually shifted toward philosophy of nature and metaphysics, in concert with his growing belief that the universe had a basically spiritual structure. In 1744 he had a vision of Christ, and in 1745 he received a call to abandon worldly learning. He spent the rest of his career interpreting the Bible and relating what he had seen in his visions. He maintained that God was the power and life within all creatures and that the Christian Trinity represented the three essential qualities of God: love, wisdom, and activity. He believed redemption consisted in humankind's being recreated in God's image through Christ's glorification. He published more than 30 works, including The True Christian Religion (1771). Societies were soon founded to propagate his pantheistic teaching, notably the New Jerusalem Church, established in London in 1787. Swedenborgians came to the U.S. in the 1790s. See pantheism.

Learn more about Swedenborg, Emanuel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 24, 1868, Berlinchen, Prussia—died Jan. 11, 1941, New York, N.Y., U.S.) German chess master and mathematician. He first won the world chess championship in 1894 and retained the h1 until his defeat by Jose Capablanca in 1921; his term remains the longest reign as champion. As the first chess master to demand high fees, he helped strengthen the financial status of chess professionals. He wrote the classic Common Sense in Chess (1896) as well as books on mathematics and philosophy. As a Jew, he was forced to leave Nazi Germany in 1933. With the loss of his property, he ended his eight-year retirement from chess, once again competing at the highest level.

Learn more about Lasker, Emanuel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

C.P.E. Bach, engraving by A. Stöttrup

(born March 8, 1714, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar—died Dec. 14, 1788, Hamburg) German composer. Second son of Johann Sebastian Bach, he received a superb musical education from his father. In 1740 he became harpsichordist at the court of Frederick II the Great, where he remained for 28 years, after which he moved to Hamburg to take the city's leading musical position. He was a leader of the Empfindsamkeit (“sensitivity”) movement, which emphasized rhapsodic freedom and sentiment. A founder of the Classical style, he is one of the first composers in whose works sonata form becomes clearly evident. He wrote some 200 works for harpsichord, clavichord, and piano (including dozens of sonatas), some 50 keyboard concertos, many symphonies, and several oratorios and Passions. His Essay on the True Manner of Playing Keyboard Instruments (1753) was a highly important practical music treatise.

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C.P.E. Bach, engraving by A. Stöttrup

(born March 8, 1714, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar—died Dec. 14, 1788, Hamburg) German composer. Second son of Johann Sebastian Bach, he received a superb musical education from his father. In 1740 he became harpsichordist at the court of Frederick II the Great, where he remained for 28 years, after which he moved to Hamburg to take the city's leading musical position. He was a leader of the Empfindsamkeit (“sensitivity”) movement, which emphasized rhapsodic freedom and sentiment. A founder of the Classical style, he is one of the first composers in whose works sonata form becomes clearly evident. He wrote some 200 works for harpsichord, clavichord, and piano (including dozens of sonatas), some 50 keyboard concertos, many symphonies, and several oratorios and Passions. His Essay on the True Manner of Playing Keyboard Instruments (1753) was a highly important practical music treatise.

Learn more about Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 30, 1873, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 4, 1944, New York City) U.S. politician. After working in the Fulton fish market to help support his family, he began his political career with a job from Tammany Hall (1895). In the state assembly (1903–15), he rose to speaker, then served in city political posts. As governor of New York (1919–20, 1923–28) he worked for improved housing, child welfare, and efficient government. In 1928 he won the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party, the first Roman Catholic to do so, but he was easily defeated by Herbert Hoover. He later opposed the New Deal programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt and supported Republican presidential candidates for president in 1936 and 1940.

Learn more about Smith, Alfred E(manuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Besides being a common first name, Emanuel (sometimes spelled Emmanuel or Immanuel) may refer to:

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