The following is a comprehensive list of kings of Persia
, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Iran
and their rulers.
Early realms in Iran
Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC
The Elamites were a people located in Susa
, in what is now Khuzestan
province. Their language was neither Semitic
, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. Some have offered evidence for a linguistic kinship between Elamite and the modern Dravidian languages
of Southern India
(see "Elamo-Dravidian languages
") but this is not universally accepted. The proto-Elamites
lived far back as 7,500 years ago in Iran
. See remains here
Avan Dynasty (precise dates unknown)
Simash Dynasty (precise dates unknown)
Eparti Dynasty (precise dates unknown)
Igehalkid Dynasty (c. 1350 – c. 1200 BC)
Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1205 – c. 1100 BC)
Late Elam Dynasty (743–644)
Empire of Medians
Median Dynasty, 728–550 BC
The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median empire during the 6th century BC.
Achaemenid dynasty, 550–330 BC
|Line of Cyrus
||Line of Ariaramnes
- Cyrus II the Great, established the Persian Empire and ruled it from 550–529.
- Cambyses II, his son, ruled 530–522.
- Smerdis, his alleged brother, ruled 522.
- Darius I the Great, son of Hystaspes, ruled 521–486.
- Xerxes I, his son, ruled 486–465.
- Artaxerxes I Longimanus, his son, ruled 464–424.
- Xerxes II, his son, ruled 424.
- Sogdianus, his half-brother, ruled 424–423.
- Darius II Nothus, his half-brother and rival, ruled 423–404.
- Artaxerxes II Memnon, his son, ruled 404–358 (see also Xenophon).
- Artaxerxes III Ochus, his son, ruled 358–338.
- Artaxerxes IV Arses, his son, ruled 338–336.
- Darius III Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius II, ruled 336–330.
- Artaxerxes V Bessus, a usurper who murdered Darius and continued the resistance against Alexander the Great from 330–329.
The epigraphic evidence for ancestors of Darius I the Great is highly suspect and might have been invented by that king.
The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid 2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. There were more Seleucid rulers of Syria and, for a time, Babylonia, after Antiochus IV, but none had any effective power in Persia).
Parthian dynasty (Arsacid dynasty), 247 BC – AD 224
There were various regional client dynasties, often with significant autonomy. Like the Elymais
client Kingdom that occupied the area of ancient Elam
, and kingdoms of Mesene
in Lower Mesopotamia and Persis
(Fars) in Central Iran, as well as Adiabene
in Northern Mesopotamia..
Sassanid Empire, AD 224–651
- Ardashir I, 224 to 241
- Shapur I, 241–272, the first to claim universal rule: Iran and Aniran, ie the rest of the world
- Hormizd I, 272–273
- Bahram I, 273–276
- Bahram II, 276–293
- Bahram III year 293
- Narseh, 293–302
- Hormizd II, 302–310
- Shapur II, 310–379
- Ardashir II, 379–383
- Shapur III, 383–388
- Bahram IV, 388–399
- Yazdegerd I, 399–420
- Bahram V, 420–438
- Yazdegerd II, 438–457
- Hormizd III, 457–459
- Peroz I, 457–484
- Balash, 484–488
- Kavadh I, 488–531
- Khosrau I, 531–579
- Hormizd IV, 579–590
- Khosrau II, 590–628
- Kavadh II, 628
- Ardashir III, 628–630
- Shahrbaraz, 630
- Boran (Purandokht) and others, 630–631
- Hormizd VI (or V), 631–632
- Yazdegerd III, 632–651
Rulers after the advent of Islam in Iran
Arab caliphs rule
All Persian provinces served under The Arabic Caliphate from 661 to 867.
Dynasties after the advent of Islam in Iran
Tahirids in Khorasan, 821–872
- Hasan ebne Zeid Hasani, Emir 864–884
- Mohammad ebne Zeid, 884–900
- Hasan ebne Ali Hoseini, 913–916
- Hasan ebne Ghasem Hasani, 916–928
Diylamids of Fars
Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman
Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan
Saffarids in Seistan and beyond, 861–1002,
Samanids (Proto-Tajiks), 892–998
- Yameen o-dowleh AbolQasem Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, Sultan 997–1030
- Jalal o-dowleh Abu Ahmad Mohammad ebne Mahmud, 1030–1030
- Shahab o-dowleh Abu Sa'd Masud ebne Mahmud, 1030–1040
- Shahab o-dowleh Abolfath Modud ebne Masud, 1040–1049
- Baha o-dowleh Abol Hasan Ali ebne Masud, 1049–1049
- Azad o-dowleh Abu Mansur Abdol Rashid ebne Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, 1049–1052
- Jamal o-dowleh Abolfazl Farrokhzaad ebne Masud ebne Mahmud, 1052–1059
- Zaheer o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Ebrahim, 1059–1098
- Ala o-dowleh Abu Saeed Masud ebne Ebrahim, 1098–1115
- Soltan o-dowleh Abol-fath Arsalan Shah, 1115–1117
- Yameen o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Baharm Shah ebne Masud, 1117–1153
- Taj o-dowleh Abol Shoja Khosro Shah ebne Bahram Shah, 1153–1160
- Saraj o-dowleh Abolmolook Khosrow Malek ebne Khosro Shah, 1160–1186
An empire built from Azerbaidjan, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.
- Ghotb-al-Din Muhammad I of Khwarazm ebne Anushtekeen Gharajeh, Shah (1096–1128)
- Ala-al-Din Abol Mozaffar Aziz ebne Ghotb-al-Din ebne Mohammad (1128–1156)
- Taj-al-Din Abolfath IlIl-Arslan (1156–1171)
- Jalal-al-Din Mahmud Soltanshah ebne Il Arsalan (1171–1172)
- Muhammad II of Khwarezm (Ala-al-Din Takesh ebne Il Arsalan) (1172–1199)
- Soltan Jalal-al-Din Mohammad ebne Aladdin Takesh (1199–1220)
- Jalal-al-Din Mingburnu ebne Ala-al-Din Mohammad (1220–1230)
Permanently destroyed by Mongol empire.
The preceding era of disunity, also called First era of fragmentation, was ended through conquest by the Ilkhans, a Mongol khanate, nominally subject to the Great Khan. (
Ilkhan means governor of an
il, i.e. province).
- Hülëgü Khan ebne Tulay ebne Genghis, Ilkhan 1256–1265
- Abaqa Khan ebne Hulegu, 1265–1282
- Sultan Ahmad Tekuder ebne Hulegu, 1282–1284
- Arghun Khan ebne Abaqa, 1284-1291
- Gaikhatu ebne Abaqa, 1291–1295
- Baidukhan ebne Toghay ebne Hulegu, 1295
- Ghazan Khan ebne Arghun, 1295–1304
- Öljeitü Khoda bandeh ebne Arghun, 1304–1316
- Abu Sa'id Bahador Khan ebne Oljeitu, 1316–1335 (last of Chinggisid il-khans)
- Arpa Ke'un, 1335–1336
- Musa Khan ebne Ali, 1336–1353
- Muhammad Khan ebne Mangu, 1337–1338
- Sati beg, daughter of Oljeitu, 1338–1340
- Shah Jahan Teimoor ebne Alafarang, 1338–1339
- Soleiman Khan, 1340–1344
- Togha Teimoor Khan, 1335–1352
- Anushiravan e Adel, 1343–1355
The Second era of fragmentation begins in 1343, as remnants of the Hordes competed with local dynasts for authority. This era ends with the conquests by Timur, around 1380
Muzaffarid Dynasty, 1314–1393
- Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
- Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
- Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) (d. 1375), 1358–1366
- Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
- Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387
In 1387 Timur captured Isfahan.
- Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
- Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
- Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
- Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393
Timurid dynasty, 1380–1507
The third era of fragmentation follows, as Timur's Empire loses cohesion and local rulers strive against each other.
- Pir Muhammad, grandson of Timur, 1392-1407, effectively ruled from Qandahar
- Djalal Ud-Din Miran Shah, son of Timur, 1405–1408, ruled Azerbaijan
- Rustam, 1405–1409, ruled Arabistan
- Khalil Sultan (Timurid dynasty), son of Miran Shah, 1405–1409, ruled in Samarkand, surrendered to Shah Rukh, became governor of Rayy until his death in 1411
- Shah Rukh, son of Timur, 1405–1447, ruled first in Transoxiana
- Ayyal, 1414, opposed Shah Rukh
- Ailankar, 1414–1415, opposed Shah Rukh
- Bayqara, 1409–1412, ruled in Fars
- Iskandar, 1412–1414, ruled first in Fars, then Azerbaijan & Arabistan
In 1410 the Turcoman horde Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep) captured Baghdad and their leaders ruled the western parts of the Timurid realm. In the East however, Shah Rukh was able to secure his rule in Transoxiana and Fars.
Rulers in Transoxiana:
Rulers in Khurasan:
Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.
After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.
Rulers in Samarkand:
conquered by the Uzbeks
Rulers in Herat:
conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids
Shahs of modern Iran
The modern Iranian monarchy was established in 1502 after the Safavid Dynasty came to power under Shah Ismail I, and ended the so-called "fourth era" of political fragmentation.
Safavid dynasty, 1502–1736
- Mohammad Shah 1786 He married the daughter of Ismail III and was installed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar Quyunlu. From his descendants come the Beys of Tunisia (through his daughter).
Afsharid dynasty, 1736–1797
Modern history of Iran
Here begins the modern history of the nation-state Iran. After the fall of the Afsharids, the eastern lands of Persia were lost to Pashtun tribes who created their own independent kingdom, which later became known as Afghanistan. For more information, see History of Afghanistan.
Zand dynasty, 1750–1794
Qajar dynasty, 1794–1925
Pahlavi dynasty, 1925–1979
In 1979 a revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini forced Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi into exile, and established an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979.