Emad o-dowleh Abol Hasan

List of kings of Persia

The following is a comprehensive list of kings of Persia, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Iran and their rulers.

Early realms in Iran

Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC

The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. Some have offered evidence for a linguistic kinship between Elamite and the modern Dravidian languages of Southern India (see "Elamo-Dravidian languages") but this is not universally accepted. The proto-Elamites lived far back as 7,500 years ago in Iran. See remains here.

Avan Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

Simash Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

Eparti Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

Igehalkid Dynasty (c. 1350 – c. 1200 BC)

Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1205 – c. 1100 BC)

Late Elam Dynasty (743–644)

Empire of Medians

Median Dynasty, 728–550 BC

The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median empire during the 6th century BC.

Achaemenid dynasty, 550–330 BC

Line of Cyrus Line of Ariaramnes

The epigraphic evidence for ancestors of Darius I the Great is highly suspect and might have been invented by that king.

Macedonian rulers

Argead Dynasty, 330–310 BC

Seleucid dynasty, 305–164 BC

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid 2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. There were more Seleucid rulers of Syria and, for a time, Babylonia, after Antiochus IV, but none had any effective power in Persia).

Parthian dynasty (Arsacid dynasty), 247 BC – AD 224

There were various regional client dynasties, often with significant autonomy. Like the Elymais client Kingdom that occupied the area of ancient Elam, and kingdoms of Mesene in Lower Mesopotamia and Persis (Fars) in Central Iran, as well as Adiabene in Northern Mesopotamia..

Sassanid Empire, AD 224–651

Rulers after the advent of Islam in Iran

Arab caliphs rule

All Persian provinces served under The Arabic Caliphate from 661 to 867.

divided, 867–1029

Dynasties after the advent of Islam in Iran

Tahirids in Khorasan, 821–872

Alavids, 864–928

  • Hasan ebne Zeid Hasani, Emir 864–884
  • Mohammad ebne Zeid, 884–900
  • Hasan ebne Ali Hoseini, 913–916
  • Hasan ebne Ghasem Hasani, 916–928

Ziyarids, 928–1043

Buyyids, 932–1056

Diylamids of Fars

Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman

Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan

Saffarids in Seistan and beyond, 861–1002,

Samanids (Proto-Tajiks), 892–998

Ghaznavids, 997–1186

  • Yameen o-dowleh AbolQasem Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, Sultan 997–1030
  • Jalal o-dowleh Abu Ahmad Mohammad ebne Mahmud, 1030–1030
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abu Sa'd Masud ebne Mahmud, 1030–1040
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abolfath Modud ebne Masud, 1040–1049
  • Baha o-dowleh Abol Hasan Ali ebne Masud, 1049–1049
  • Azad o-dowleh Abu Mansur Abdol Rashid ebne Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, 1049–1052
  • Jamal o-dowleh Abolfazl Farrokhzaad ebne Masud ebne Mahmud, 1052–1059
  • Zaheer o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Ebrahim, 1059–1098
  • Ala o-dowleh Abu Saeed Masud ebne Ebrahim, 1098–1115
  • Soltan o-dowleh Abol-fath Arsalan Shah, 1115–1117
  • Yameen o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Baharm Shah ebne Masud, 1117–1153
  • Taj o-dowleh Abol Shoja Khosro Shah ebne Bahram Shah, 1153–1160
  • Saraj o-dowleh Abolmolook Khosrow Malek ebne Khosro Shah, 1160–1186

Seljuks, 1029–1194

divided, 1194–1256

Khwarazmids, 1096–1230

An empire built from Azerbaidjan, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.

  • Ghotb-al-Din Muhammad I of Khwarazm ebne Anushtekeen Gharajeh, Shah (1096–1128)
  • Ala-al-Din Abol Mozaffar Aziz ebne Ghotb-al-Din ebne Mohammad (1128–1156)
  • Taj-al-Din Abolfath IlIl-Arslan (1156–1171)
  • Jalal-al-Din Mahmud Soltanshah ebne Il Arsalan (1171–1172)
  • Muhammad II of Khwarezm (Ala-al-Din Takesh ebne Il Arsalan) (1172–1199)
  • Soltan Jalal-al-Din Mohammad ebne Aladdin Takesh (1199–1220)
  • Jalal-al-Din Mingburnu ebne Ala-al-Din Mohammad (1220–1230)

Permanently destroyed by Mongol empire.

Ilkhans, 1256–1380

The preceding era of disunity, also called First era of fragmentation, was ended through conquest by the Ilkhans, a Mongol khanate, nominally subject to the Great Khan. (Ilkhan means governor of an il, i.e. province).

The Second era of fragmentation begins in 1343, as remnants of the Hordes competed with local dynasts for authority. This era ends with the conquests by Timur, around 1380

Muzaffarid Dynasty, 1314–1393

  • Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  • Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) (d. 1375), 1358–1366
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
  • Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387

In 1387 Timur captured Isfahan.

  • Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  • Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  • Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  • Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Timurid dynasty, 1380–1507

The third era of fragmentation follows, as Timur's Empire loses cohesion and local rulers strive against each other.

In 1410 the Turcoman horde Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep) captured Baghdad and their leaders ruled the western parts of the Timurid realm. In the East however, Shah Rukh was able to secure his rule in Transoxiana and Fars.

Rulers in Transoxiana:

Rulers in Khurasan:

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.

Rulers in Samarkand:

conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids

Shahs of modern Iran

The modern Iranian monarchy was established in 1502 after the Safavid Dynasty came to power under Shah Ismail I, and ended the so-called "fourth era" of political fragmentation.

Safavid dynasty, 1502–1736

Safavi Line

Marashi-Safavi Line

Safavi Line

Marashi-Safavi Line

Sultani-Safavi Line

Unknown House

Sultani-Safavi Line

Unknown-Sultani-Safavi Line

  • Mohammad Shah 1786 He married the daughter of Ismail III and was installed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar Quyunlu. From his descendants come the Beys of Tunisia (through his daughter).

Afsharid dynasty, 1736–1797

Modern history of Iran

Here begins the modern history of the nation-state Iran. After the fall of the Afsharids, the eastern lands of Persia were lost to Pashtun tribes who created their own independent kingdom, which later became known as Afghanistan. For more information, see History of Afghanistan.

Zand dynasty, 1750–1794

Qajar dynasty, 1794–1925

Pahlavi dynasty, 1925–1979

In 1979 a revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini forced Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi into exile, and established an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979.

See also

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