An electroshock weapon
is an incapacitant weapon
used for subduing a person by administering electric shock
aimed at disrupting superficial muscle
functions. One type is a conductive energy device (CED), an electroshock gun popularly known by the brand name "Taser
", which fires projectiles that administer the shock through a thin, flexible wire. Other electroshock weapons such as stun guns, stun batons, and electroshock belts administer an electric shock by direct contact.
Principles of operation
Electroshock weapon technology uses a temporary high-voltage low-current electrical discharge to override the body's muscle-triggering mechanisms. The recipient is immobilized via two metal probes connected via metal wires to the electroshock device. The recipient feels pain, and can be momentarily paralyzed while an electric current is being applied. It is reported that applying electroshock devices to more sensitive parts of the body is even more painful. The Maximum Effective Areas for stun gun usage are upper shoulder, below the rib cage, and the upper hip. The relatively low electric current must be pushed by high voltage to overcome the electrical resistance of the human body. The resulting 'shock' is caused by muscles twitching uncontrollably, appearing as muscle spasms. Experts generally agree that the 'margin' of safety in this case is highly dependent on the overall health of the person subjected to the shock. The higher the voltage, the more adverse it is.
The new M-26 Taser models produce a peak current of 18 Amperes in pulses that last for around 10 microseconds.
The internal circuits of most electroshock weapons are fairly simple, based on either an oscillator, resonant circuit, and step-up transformer or a diode-capacitor voltage multiplier to achieve the continuous, direct, or alternating high-voltage discharge. It may be powered by one or more batteries depending on manufacturer and model. The output voltages without external "load" (which would be the target's body) are claimed to be in the range of 50 kV up to 1000 kV, with the most common being in the 200 to 300 kV range. However, since air has a dielectric breakdown (Emax) of 3000 kV/m, it is clear that the spacing of the electrodes will not permit the upper range of claimed voltages (900 kV representing a minimum electrode spacing of about 30 cm). The output current upon contact with the target will depend on various factors such as target's resistance, skin type, moisture, bodily salinity, clothing, the electroshock weapon's internal circuitry, and battery conditions.
According to the many sources, a shock of a half-second duration will cause intense pain and muscle contractions, startling most people greatly. Two to three seconds will often cause the subject to become dazed and drop to the ground, and over three seconds will usually completely disorient and drop an attacker for at least several seconds.TASER International warns law enforcement agencies that “prolonged or continuous exposure(s) to the TASER device’s electrical charge” may lead to medical risks such as cumulative exhaustion and breathing impairment. Because there was no automatic stop on older model taser guns, many officers have used it repeatedly or for a prolonged period of time, thus potentially contributing to suspects’ injuries or death. The current X26 model automatically stops five seconds after the trigger is depressed and then the trigger must be depressed again to send another "shock". The trigger can be held down continuously for a longer shock or the device can be switched off before the full five seconds have elapsed.
Electric shock prods
This type is similar in basic design to an electric cattle prod
. It has a metal end split into two parts electrically insulated from each other, or two thin projecting metal electrodes
about an inch apart, at an end of a shaft containing the batteries and mechanism. At the other end of the shaft are a handle and a switch. Both electrodes must touch the subject. In some types the sides of the baton can be electrified to stop the subject from grasping the baton above the electrodes. They are often carried in a sheath slung on a belt. Some such devices are available disguised as other objects, such as umbrellas, cell-phones or pens. Sometimes they have an option to make a noisy visible electric arc between the electrodes, to warn potential victims.
Some models are built into long flashlights also designed to administer an electric shock with its lit end's metal surround (which is split into halves insulated from each other).
In the beginning, police used electric cattle prods as electric shock prods.
- Links to images:
is an electroshock weapon that can stun
a targeted subject from a distance by firing electrodes on the end of long thin wires.
Wireless long-range electric shock weapon
recently said they had finished developing a long-range wireless electro-shock projectile called XREP (eXtended Range Electro-Muscular Projectile), which can be fired from any 12-gauge shotgun
; its range is currently 100 feet, but the U.S. Department of Defense
, which has funded development of the technology, expects delivery of a 300-foot-range projectile of this type from the company in 2007.
A stun belt is a belt that is fastened around the subject's waist, leg, or arm that carries a battery and control pack, and contains features to stop the subject from unfastening or removing it. A remote-control signal is sent to tell the battery pack to give the subject an electric shock. Some models are activated by the subject's movement.
The United States uses these devices to control prisoners. One type is the REACT belt. Some stun belts can restrain the subject's hands and have a strap going under the subject's crotch to stop him from rotating the belt around the subject's waist and trying to deactivate it. Stun belts are not generally available to the public.
Due to increased interest in developing less-lethal weapons, mainly from the US military, a number of new types of electroshock weapon are being researched. They are designed to provide a "ranged" non-lethal weapon.
Weapons that administer electric shock through a stream of fluid
Prototype electroshock guns exist that replace the solid wire with a stream of conductive liquid (e.g., an electrolyte), which offers the range of a Taser (or better) and the possibility of multiple shots. See Electrified water cannon
. Difficulties associated with this experimental design include:
- "Non-continuous" discharge onto subject: liquid stream needs over 30 feet and over 5-second discharge
- "Pooling" of conductive liquid at base of subject, making apprehension of subject difficult by observing officers
- Need to carry a large tank of the liquid used, and a propellant canister, like a “water gun”, to administer consecutive bursts of liquid over distances.
Another design, announced by Rheinmetall W&M as a prototype in 2003, uses an aerosol as the conductive medium. The manufacturers called it a "Plasma Taser"; however, this is only a marketing name, and the weapon does not use plasma. Problems associated with this design include:
- Poor electrical conductivity
- Range of concept design is nominal (a gas cannot be propelled greater than 10 feet effectively)
- The "gassing effect": all subjects in enclosed spaces are subjected to same effects.
Other known or rumored variants include the electrolaser
, which uses blooming
of a laser beam to create a conductive channel of ionized air (plasma
) to carry the electric shock.
- - Electric whaling apparatus - 1852 patent by Albert Sonnenburg and Philipp Rechten
- - Electric weapon - 1957 patent by Thomas D. Ryan
- - Electrical stun guns and electrically conductive liquids - 1989 patent by Gregory Battochi
Because of the use of electricity and the claim of the weapon being non-lethal, controversy has sprouted over particular incidents involving the weapon and the use of the weapon in general. In essence, controversy has been centered around the justification of the use of the weapon in certain instances, and, in some cases, health issues that are claimed to be due to the use of the weapon.
In independent reviews, the devices are usually verified as non-lethal, but the manufacturers' instructions and disclaimers often warn of possible fatalities.
The United Nations
Committee against Torture reports that the use of Tasers can be a form of torture, due to the acute pain they cause, and warns against the possibility of death in certain cases.
The use of stun belts has been condemned by Amnesty International
, not only for the physical pain the devices cause, but also for their heightened abuse potential, due to their perceived "harmlessness" in terms of causing initial injuries like (e.g.) ordinary police batons do. Amnesty International has reported several alleged cases of excessive electroshock gun use that possibly amount to torture. They have also raised extensive concerns about the use of other electro-shock devices by American police and in American prisons, as they can be (and according to Amnesty International
, sometimes are) used to inflict cruel pain on individuals.
Tasers may also not leave the telltale markings that a conventional beating might. The American Civil Liberties Union has also raised concerns about their use.
Contact weapons' effectiveness as self-defense weapons
These devices are usually advertised as very effective "personal defense" weapons. Many security operators and martial arts experts have expressed doubt about their effectiveness against determined and physically strong aggressors in a real combat situation and their value as a defense weapon in general.
They say that contact based electroshock weapons need much more continuous and uninterrupted contact time with one's intended target than usually advertised, well above 5 seconds, to stop a determined assailant effectively, and that much time can be impossible to achieve against a physically superior or better-trained opponent in close unarmed combat. They say that, in such an event, the likely outcome would be merely irritating the assailant and having the electroshock weapon broken, taken away, or used against oneself for retaliation, after giving its intended user a false sense of security and power.