Reading is an action performed by computers, to acquire data from a source and place it into their volatile memory for processing. For example, a computer may read information off a floppy disk and store it in random access memory to be placed on the hard drive to be processed at a future date. Computers may read information from a variety of sources, such as magnetic storage, the Internet, or audio and video input ports.
The act of reading one unit of information (e.g. a byte) is sometimes called a read cycle. The electrical circuit that transforms the physical magnetic flux changes into abstract bits is called the read channel. A read error occurs when the physical part of the process fails for some reason, such as dust or dirt entering the drive.
Reading can be abstracted to one of the main functions of a Turing machine.
In NOR gate flash, each cell resembles a standard MOSFET except the transistor has two gates instead of one. On top is the control gate (CG), as in other MOS transistors, but below this there is a floating gate (FG) insulated all around by an oxide layer. The FG is interposed between the CG and the MOSFET channel, and because the FG is electrically isolated by its insulating layer, any electrons placed on it are trapped there and, under normal conditions, will not discharge for many years. When current flow through the MOSFET channel binary code is generated, reproducing the stored data.
NAND gate flash utilizes tunnel injection for writing and tunnel release for erasing. NAND flash memory forms the core of the removable USB storage devices known as USB flash drives, as well as most memory card formats available today.
Small polarized ferrous cores in the shape of wires or poles are flipped along the surface of reading and writing into the desired data is stored. Accessing different parts of the medium involves winding the wire forward or backward until the point of interest is found. Data is read through through a small reading peripheral which amplifies which side the ferrous cores are arranged.
Punch cards became popularized from 1900 to 1950 as it became the most common storage medium for computers. The information was read through a method of identifying the holes in the card which was then converted to another medium.
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