) (from Turkish Efendi
) is a Turkish
title meaning a lord
. It is a title of respect or courtesy, equivalent to the English Sir
, in Turkey
and some other Eastern countries. It follows the personal name, when it is used, and is generally given to members of the learned professions, and to government officials who have no higher rank, such as Bey
. It may also indicate a definite office, as Hekim efendi
, chief physician to the sultan
. The possessive
(my master) is used by servants and in formal intercourse.
In Ottoman era, the most common title affixed to a personal name after that of agha was efendi. Such a title would have indicated an "educated gentleman", hence by implication a graduate of a secular state school (rüşdiye), even though at least some if not most of these efendis had once been religious students, or even religious teachers.
According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica the word is a corruption of the Greek aphentes (afendis in Modern Greek's "lord" or "master"). Though it may have rather been derived from the Old Turkic apandi, a title of nobility, since it appears in Old Uyghur.
- Effendi was also considered a man of high education or social standing in an eastern Mediterranean or Arab country. It was a title of Turkish origin, analogous to Esquire, and junior to Bey in Egypt during the period of Muhammad Ali dynasty.
- Effendi is still used as an honorific in Egypt and Turkey, and is the source of the word أفندم؟ effendim?, efendim, a particularly polite way of saying "Pardon me?".
- Effendi (warrant officer) was the highest rank that a Black African could achieve in the British King's African Rifles.
- In Indonesia and Malaysia, "Effendi" can serve as someone's name.
- In Bosnia and Herzegovina Effendi refers to Muslim clerics.