Eduard von

Eduard von

Hartmann, Eduard von, 1842-1906, German philosopher. His Philosophy of the Unconscious appeared in 1869 (tr., 3 vol., 1884; new ed. 1931). By the unconscious, Hartmann meant the inexplicable forces of nature which activate the world process, whether in atoms or in organisms. Influenced by Schopenhauer and Hegel, he saw the world process as a struggle between blind impulse and reason. In ethics, he overcame an early pessimism founded on the irrational characteristics of life and later formulated a qualified optimism based on the evolutionary forces of reason.
Capelle, Eduard von, 1855-1931, German admiral. As secretary for the navy (1916-18) he reinstituted (1917) unrestricted submarine warfare in World War I.
Eduard von Steiger (July 2, 1881 - February 10, 1962) was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council (1940–1951).

He was elected to the Federal Council on December 10, 1940 and handed over office on December 31, 1951. He was affiliated to the Party of Farmers, Traders and Independents (BGB/PAI), now the Swiss People's Party.

During his time in office he held the Department of Justice and Police and was President of the Confederation twice in 1945 and 1951.

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