Maol Choluim II (or Máel Coluim II, usually anglicized as Malcolm II), was a 13th century Mormaer of Fife who ruled the mormaerdom or earldom of Fife between 1228 and 1266. He was the nephew of Maol Choluim I, the previous mormaer, and the son of Maol Choluim I's brother Donnchadh, son of Donnchadh II.
He is one of the Scottish magnates whose name occurred as a guarantor in the Treaty of York, September 25, 1237. He participated in the famous inauguration of King Alexander III of Scotland at Scone on 13 July, 1249, where the mormaers of Fife had a traditional senior role in the coronation. He played a role during the minority of Alexander III of Scotland, being appointed one of the guardians in the king, September 20, 1255.
He appears to have had a close relationship with Henry III of England, both during the minority and after, and in Scotland may have been allied with Alan Durward. He was fined in Northumberland on April 24, 1256, for not appearing before royal justices on the first day of their session, as presumably ordered. He disappears from the records after the coup against the minority administration in 1256-57, but reappears a few years later when he is recorded swearing an oath to Henry to promise to maintain the position of the young king and queen when the latter, Henry III's daughter Margaret, went to England in 1260.
Maol Choluim II died in 1266. He had married Elen ferch Llywelyn, the daughter of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth Fawr ("the Great"), who after Maol Choluim's death married the Mormaer of Mar, Domhnall. He had two sons who are known to us. The elder was Colbán, to whom the mormaerdom passed after Maol Choluim's death. Chieftancy of Clann Meic Duibh went to another son, whose name however is unknown as he was only referred to by his title MacDuibh. Maol Choluim appears from later records to have granted lands to this younger son, which were later dispossessed by William Wishart, Bishop of St Andrews, later backed by King John de Balliol, against whom MacDuibh appealed to King Edward I of England.