For example, electric power is lost in all dielectric materials, usually in the form of heat. DF is expressed as the ratio of the resistive power loss to the capacitive power, and is equal to the tangent of the loss angle.
where is the permittivity ()
is the conductivity
is the angular frequency (i.e. )
and refer to the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity.
DF will vary depending on the dielectric material. In low dielectric constant (low-k), temperature compensating, ceramics DF of 0.1 to 0.2% is typical. In high dielectic constant ceramics, DF can be 1 to 2%. However, lower DF is usually an indication of quality capacitors when comparing similar dielectric material.
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