, a diagonal form
is an algebraic form (homogeneous polynomial
) without cross-terms involving different indeterminates
. That is, it is
- Σ aixim
for some given degree m, summed for 1 ≤ i ≤ n.
Such forms F, and the hypersurfaces F = 0 they define in projective space, are very special in geometric terms, with many symmetries. They also include famous cases like the Fermat curves, and other examples well known in the theory of Diophantine equations.
A great deal has been worked out about their theory: algebraic geometry, local zeta-functions via Jacobi sums, Hardy-Littlewood circle method.