The de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo is a short takeoff and landing (STOL) utility transport, a turboprop version developed from the earlier piston-powered DHC-4 Caribou. The aircraft has extraordinary STOL performance, able to take off in distances much shorter than even light aircraft can manage.
The Buffalo arose from a United States Army requirement. Its first flight was on 22 September 1961 but due to a protracted test and development phase, only a pre-production run of four DHC-5As was delivered in 1965 and designated YAC-2 (later CV-7A and subsequently C-8A). Difficulties arose with the Buffalo program in the US, as despite having won the US Army competition, the contract was not awarded. Complications had arisen when US Army fixed wing operations were transferred to the United States Air Force who considered themselves adequately equipped with the American-made Fairchild C-123 Provider.
In the early 1980s, de Havilland Canada attempted to modify the Buffalo for civilian use. The aircraft was to be branded as the "Transporter." After loss of the demonstration aircraft (SN 103 C-GCTC) at the 1984 Farnborough Airshow, the project was abandoned.
The Royal Canadian Air Force (now the Canadian Forces) first acquired 15 DHC-5A designated as CC-115 for tactical transports. These were initially operated at CFB St Hubert, QC by No. 429 Squadron in a tactical aviation role as part of Mobile Command. In 1970 the Buffalo aircraft were transferred to a transport and rescue role with No. 442 Squadron RCAF, No. 413 Squadron RCAF, and No. 424 Squadron Squadrons as part of Transport Command. No. 426 Squadron also flew the aircraft as a Training Squadron. Some were leased back or loaned back to the factory for trials and eventually returned to military service.
Three of the aircraft were also deployed on UN missions to the Middle East with No. 116 Transport Unit until 1979. They had a white paint scheme which was retained while they were serving in domestic transport with 424 Sqn in between deployments. On 9 August 1974 a Buffalo (115461) was shot down by a Syrian surface-to-air missile, killing all nine CF personnel on board. This represents the single biggest loss of Canadian lives on a UN mission as well as the last Canadian military aircraft to be shot down.
In 1975, the Buffalo dropped its tactical transport role and was converted to domestic search and rescue, except for a few that kept serving on UN missions. The initial paint scheme for the SAR converted aircraft were white and red while others still had the original drab paint. The previous drab paint and white paint were eventually replaced with the distinctive yellow and red scheme commonly seen today. The number of aircraft have been reduced to eight, with six on active service, one in storage (recently dismantled) and one used for battle damage training. The remaining operational Buffalos operate in the Search and Rescue role for No. 442 Squadron at CFB Comox. The Buffalo was replaced by the CC-130 Hercules aircraft at search-and-rescue bases in CFB Greenwood and CFB Trenton. The EADS-CASA C-295 or Lockheed/Alenia C-27J Spartan were seen as the likely replacements for the Buffalo in Canadian Forces. The C-27J is now being considered as a sole-source contract by the Government of Canada.
There are currently two Buffalo aircraft used commercially in Canada. They operate with Arctic Sunwest Charters, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories.