The treatment of mental disorders
includes various forms of psychotherapy
, psychiatric medication
, and other practices.
A major option for many mental disorders is psychotherapy
. Psychotherapy is an interpersonal intervention, usually provided by a mental health professional
, that employs any of a range of specific psychological techniques. There are several main types. Cognitive behavioral therapy
(CBT) is used for a wide variety of disorders, based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder. There are various kinds of CBT therapy, and offshoots such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy
, addressing underlying psychic conflicts and defenses, has been a dominant school of psychotherapy and is still in use. Systemic Therapy
or Family therapy
is sometimes used, addressing a network of relationships as well as an individual themselves. Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic
approach. Some therapies are for a specific disorder only, for example interpersonal and social rhythm therapy
Mental health professionals often pick and choose techniques, employing an eclectic or integrative approach tailored to a particular disorder and individual. Much may depend on the therapeutic relationship, and there may be issues of trust, confidentiality and engagement.
is also widely used to treat mental disorders. These are licenced psychoactive
drugs usually prescribed
by a psychiatrist
or family doctor. There are several main groups. Antidepressants
are used for the treatment of clinical depression
as well as often for anxiety and other disorders. Anxiolytics
are used, generally shorter-term, for anxiety disorders and related problems such as insomnia. Mood stabilizers
are used primarily in bipolar disorder
, mainly targeting mania
rather than depression. Antipsychotics
are used for psychotic disorders
, notably in schizophrenia
are commonly used, notably for ADHD
Despite the different conventional names of the drug groups, there can be considerable overlap in the kinds of disorders for which they are actually indicated. There may also be off-label use. There can be problems with adverse effects and adherence.
Electroconvulsive therapy ECT
is sometimes used, for example in prolonged mood disorder unresponsive to other interventions. Psychosurgery
, including Deep brain stimulation
, is another available treatment for some disorders.
Creative therapies are sometimes used, including music therapy, art therapy or drama therapy.
Lifestyle adjustments and supportive measures are often used, including peer support, self-help and supported housing or employment. Some advocate dietary supplements. Many things have been found to help at least some people. A placebo effect may play a role.
Often an individual may engage in different treatment modalities and use various mental health services. These may be under case management (sometimes referred to as "service coordination"), use inpatient or day treatment, utilize a psychosocial rehabilitation program, and/or take part in an Assertive Community Treatment program.
Mental health services may be based in hospitals, clinics or the community.
Some approaches are based on a recovery model of mental disorder, and may focus on challenging stigma and social exclusion and creating empowerment and hope
In America, half of people with severe symptoms of a mental health condition were found to have received no treatment in the prior 12 months.
Fear of disclosure, rejection by friends, and ultimately discrimination are a few reasons why people with mental health conditions often don't seek help.
List of treatments