Polish Royal Prussia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the late 18th century Partitions of Poland, with the city of Danzig becoming Prussian in 1793. The territory was administered in the new province of West Prussia.
In 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, West Prussia was divided into Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder and Regierungsbezirk Danzig. While the governor and provincial authorities were based in Danzig, the provincial court was in the town of Marienwerder (Kwidzyn).
West Prussia was reorganized into Kreise, or districts, within each government region from 1815-18. The Danzig region included the urban districts (Stadtkreise) of Danzig and Elbing (Elbląg), as well as the rural districts (Landkreise) of Berent, Danzig, Elbing, Karthaus, Marienburg, Neustadt, and Preußisch Stargard.
By 1920, Landkreis Danzig had been divided into the rural districts of Danziger Höhe and Danziger Niederung; the seats of each district were in the city of Danzig. Regierungsbezirk Danzig also included the rural districts of Dirschau and Putzig.
As a result of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles allocated most of West Prussia to the Second Polish Republic, and Regierungsbezirk Danzig was dissolved in 1920. The city of Danzig and its environs became the Free City of Danzig. A few areas of the Danzig administrative region remained in the Free State of Prussia in Weimar Germany, however. The districts of Marienburg and Elbing and the city of Elbing were added to a truncated Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder, which was renamed Regierungsbezirk Westpreußen when it was transferred from defunct West Prussia to the Province of East Prussia.