Daniel

Daniel

[dan-yuhl]
Libeskind, Daniel, 1946-, American architect, b. Łódź, Poland. He moved to the United States in 1959, becoming a citizen in 1965. He has held a number of teaching posts, notably at the Cranbrook Academy of Art (1978-85) and the universities of Pennsylvania and Toronto, and early in his career was known mainly as an academic and theorist. His first major building, the dramatic Jewish Museum Berlin (2001), has an angular titanium-on-zinc exterior, a floor plan reminiscent of the Magen David, and an empty, concrete-walled space (the Void) symbolic of the absence wrought by the Holocaust. His other designs include the Felix Nussbaum Museum, Osnabrück, Germany (1998); the Imperial War Museum, Manchester, England (2002); the Danish Jewish Museum, Copenhagen (2004); the Wohl Convention Center, Tel Aviv (2005); the Hyundai office tower, Seoul (2005); and the Denver Art Museum addition (2006). Libeskind became world famous in 2003 when he won the design competition for the master rebuilding plan for New York's World Trade Center site, but in the years since his role in the project has been severely curtailed. His books include Between Zero and Infinity (1981), Countersign (1992), and The Space of Encounter (2001).

See his memoir, Breaking Ground: An Immigrant's Journey from Poland to Ground Zero (2004).

Brodhead, Daniel, 1736-1809, American Revolutionary officer and Indian fighter, b. probably near Albany, N.Y. He was taken as an infant to Pennsylvania, where he later served as deputy surveyor general (1773-75). In the Revolution he commanded a detachment of militia in the battle of Long Island, was sent (1778) to Pittsburgh, and became commandant there in 1779. In that year he led an expedition up the Allegheny River against the Native Americans; this was linked with the expedition of John Sullivan in New York. When in 1781 the Delawares broke their treaty, he invaded their territory. He was removed from his command but later was brevetted brigadier general. For 11 years (1798-1809) he was surveyor general of Pennsylvania.
Pratt, Daniel, 1799-1873, American industrialist, b. Temple, N.H. He moved to Georgia at the age of 20, and after he had become a partner in a cotton gin he went (1833) to Alabama, where he founded (1835) Prattville, 12 mi (17 km) NW of Montgomery. Here he built up numerous industries, promoted business, and became one of the first important industrialists of Alabama. He became interested in coal and iron industries in Birmingham. As a representative in the Alabama legislature during the Civil War, he at first opposed secession but later ardently supported the Confederacy.

See biography by S. F. H. Tarrant (1904).

Boone, Daniel, 1734-1820, American frontiersman, b. Oley (now Exeter) township, near Reading, Pa.

The Boones, English Quakers, left Pennsylvania in 1750 and settled (1751 or 1752) in the Yadkin valley of North Carolina. Daniel served as a wagoner in Braddock's ill-fated expedition (1755) against Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) and almost certainly took part in Gen. John Forbes's successful march on the same place in 1758. He became interested in Florida, but his wife, the former Rebecca Bryan, whom he married in 1756, refused to accompany him. He explored (1769-71) the Kentucky region thoroughly, and its prospects delighted him.

Attacks by Native Americans turned back his first colonizing attempt (1773), but in Mar., 1775, as advance agent for Richard Henderson and the Transylvania Company and with an armed band of 30 men, he blazed the famous Wilderness Road and founded Boonesboro (or Boonesborough) on the Kentucky River. Henderson arrived in a few weeks with additional settlers, and later in the same season Boone guided a second party, including his family. When Kentucky was made a county of Virginia in 1776, he was elected a captain of militia.

In the American Revolution, while on an expedition to find salt in the Blue Licks on the Licking River, Boone and his party were captured (Feb., 1778) by Shawnee and taken to British headquarters at Detroit. Highly regarded by his captors, he was adopted as a member of the tribe. He led them to think that he would prevail on the other settlers to surrender, but, after four months of captivity, he escaped in time to prepare Boonesboro for an attack by the tribe, which then failed. A disgruntled element charged Boone with disloyalty, and although he was promptly acquitted and elected major, he left Boonesboro and, after collecting his family, which had returned to North Carolina after his capture, founded (1779) a new settlement, Boone's Station, near what is now Athens, Ky.

Boone served several terms as representative in the Virginia legislature. His titles to large tracts of land were adjudged imperfect, and despite his services to Kentucky he lost his best holdings through ejectment suits. Disgusted, he and Rebecca followed (1799) a son to Missouri, where the Spanish government granted him a large tract in the Femme Osage valley and made him district magistrate. When the United States assumed jurisdiction over this territory after the Louisiana Purchase (1803), his land titles were again found to be defective, but the direct intercession of Congress (1814) restored part of his acreage.

Boone's adventures became well known through the so-called autobiographical account that appeared in the widely read Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of Kentucke (1784), by John Filson, and Lord Byron's verses on him in Don Juan gave his name international prominence. Historical scholarship has disproved many of the legends about him; nevertheless these still attest to those qualities of courage and determination that earned him enduring popularity.

See biographies by J. Bakeless (1965), R. G. Thwaites (1963, repr. 1971), and R. E. McDowell (1972).

Manning, Daniel, 1831-87, American journalist and political leader, b. Albany, N.Y. At the age of 11 he went to work for the Albany Atlas, which in 1856 was consolidated with the Argus; he became editor in 1865 and owner in 1873. In 1874 he became a member of the New York Democratic committee, serving as chairman from 1881 to 1884. Manning played an important part in electing Grover Cleveland governor in 1882 and in nominating him for President in 1884. He served (1885-87) as Secretary of the Treasury under Cleveland.
O'Connell, Daniel, 1775-1847, Irish political leader. He is known as the Liberator. Admitted to the Irish bar in 1798, O'Connell built up a lucrative law practice. Gradually he became involved in the Irish fight for Catholic Emancipation; his abilities as a speaker, organizer, and leader soon advanced him to the uncontested command of the movement. In 1823 he founded the Catholic Association, a formidable and powerful agitation society, which despite English restrictive measures became a great national force. The pressure on Parliament was brought to a head by O'Connell's election in 1828 to a seat in the House of Commons (permitted by the repeal of the Test Act), despite his inability as a Catholic to take the oaths required to sit in Parliament. Alarmed, the government was obliged to pass (1829) the Catholic Emancipation Act. In Parliament, O'Connell supported the Whigs and the reform cause. He supported repeal of the parliamentary union of Great Britain and Ireland, forming a new agitation society to replace each one suppressed by the government. O'Connell worked indefatigably for the reform of the existing government of Ireland and for the abolition of compulsory support of the Church of Ireland. In 1841, O'Connell became the first Catholic lord mayor of Dublin since the time of James II. In 1843 he was indicted for creating disaffection; he was declared guilty and imprisoned, but the sentence was overturned (1844) by the House of Lords. Favoring constitutional methods, O'Connell lost support in the 1840s to nationalists who preferred revolutionary means to end the union and to solve the Irish Land Question. He also lost followers who resented his Catholic sectarianism. The secession of the Young Ireland group from his Repeal Association signified his declining authority. Ordered to seek a change for his health, he set out for Italy, where he died. O'Connell's eminence as a leader and creator of national feeling and unity greatly affected the history of Ireland.

See M. R. O'Connell, ed., Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell (1973); R. Dunlop, Daniel O'Connell and the Revival of National Life in Ireland (1900); A. D. Macintyre, The Liberator (1965); R. Moley, Daniel O'Connell (1974); biographies by S. O'Faolain (1938) and D. Gwynn (1947).

Ellsberg, Daniel, 1931-, American political activist, b. Chicago, grad. Columbia Univ. (B.S., 1952, Ph.D., 1959). After serving in the U.S. Marine Corps, he worked for the Rand Corporation (1959-64; 1967-70), conducting studies on defense policies. Originally a strong supporter of the Vietnam War, he became a committed opponent of U.S. policy. In 1971 he gave the New York Times access to a secret history of the Vietnam War, commissioned by the Dept. of Defense, which revealed that the government had repeatedly misled the American people about the escalation of the war. The government attempted to prevent the publication of the report, which became commonly known as the Pentagon Papers; the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) that the publication of the papers was permissible. The government attempted to prosecute Ellsberg for the release of the report. The charges were dismissed in 1973 when it was revealed that White House officials had burglarized the offices of Ellsberg's psychiatrist in an effort to discredit him (see Watergate affair). He discusses the matter in his Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers (2002).

See biography by T. Wells (2001).

Morgan, Daniel, 1736-1802, American Revolutionary general, b. probably in Hunterdon co., N.J. He moved (c.1753) to Virginia and later served in the French and Indian Wars and several campaigns against Native Americans. In the Revolution, Morgan assumed command of the attack on Quebec (see Quebec campaign) after Benedict Arnold was wounded, but Morgan himself was captured. He was exchanged (1776) and took part in the Saratoga campaign, but dissatisfied with the congressional policy of promotions, he retired in 1779. He reentered the army in 1780 and joined the Carolina campaign. Serving under Nathanael Greene, he defeated the British at Cowpens (1781). After the war he helped to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion and served (1797-99) as a U.S. Congressman.

See biographies by N. Callahan (1961) and D. Higginbotham (1961).

Nathans, Daniel, 1928-99, American microbiologist, b. Wilmington, Del., M.D. Washington Univ., St. Louis, 1954. He became a professor at Johns Hopkins in 1962. Nathans worked with Werner Arber and Hamilton Othanel Smith in studying the nature of genes. The trio discovered and used biochemical "scalpels" called restriction enzymes that can cut genetic material into pieces for various studies and applications. The restriction enzyme technique, a fundamental tool in modern genetic research, helped create the biotechnology industry and provided the basis for the Human Genome Project. For their work they received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In 1993, Nathans was awarded the highest scientific award of the United States, the National Medal of Science.
Bell, Daniel, 1919-, U.S. sociologist. After 20 years as a journalist, he took a degree in sociology and went on to teach at Columbia and Harvard. He has written on contemporary capitalist society and the individual's place within it.
Heinsius, Daniel, 1580-1655, Dutch classicist. One of the most famous Renaissance scholars, he edited many Latin works, composed fine Latin poetry, and wrote in Dutch as well. His son Nikolaas Heinsius, 1620-81, rivaled his father as an author and editor of Latin poetry.
Defoe or De Foe, Daniel, 1660?-1731, English writer, b. London.

Early Life and Works

The son of a London butcher, and educated at a Dissenters' academy, he was typical of the new kind of man reaching prominence in England in the 18th cent.—self-reliant, industrious, possessing a strong notion of personal and moral responsibility. Although intended for the Presbyterian ministry, he had by 1683 set himself up as a merchant dealing in many different commodities. In spite of his own considerable savings and his wife's dowry, Defoe went bankrupt in 1692. Although he paid his creditors, he was never entirely free from debt again.

Defoe's first important publication was An Essay upon Projects (1698), but it was not until the poem The True-born Englishman (1701), a defense of William III from his attackers, that he received any real fame. An ill-timed satire early in Queen Anne's reign, The Shortest Way with Dissenters (1702), an ironic defense of High Church animosity against nonconformists, resulted in Defoe's being imprisoned. He was rescued by Robert Harley and subsequently served the statesman as a political agent.

Defoe has been called the father of modern journalism; during his lifetime he was associated with 26 periodicals. From 1704 to 1713 he published and wrote a Review, a miscellaneous journal concerned with the affairs of Europe; this was an incredibly ambitious undertaking for one man.

Defoe the Novelist

He was nearly sixty when he turned to writing novels. In 1719 he published his famous Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, followed by two less engrossing sequels. Based in part on the experiences of Alexander Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe describes the daily life of a man marooned on a desert island. Although there are exciting episodes in the novel—Crusoe rescuing his man Friday from cannibals—its main interest derives from the way in which Crusoe overcomes the extraordinary difficulties of life on the island while preserving his human integrity. Robinson Crusoe is considered by some critics to be the first true novel in English.

Defoe's great novels were not published under his name but as authentic memoirs, with the intention of gulling his readers into thinking his fictions true. Two excellent examples of his semihistorical recreations are the picaresque adventure Moll Flanders (1722), the story of a London prostitute and thief, and an account of the 1665 great plague in London entitled A Journal of the Plague Year (1722).

Defoe's writing is always straightforward and vivid, with an astonishing concern for circumstantial detail. His other major works include Captain Singleton (1720), Colonel Jack (1722), Roxana (1724), and A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain (1724-27). In 1724 A General History of the Pyrates by a Captain Charles Johnson was published; it was not until 200 years later that Defoe was discovered to be the true author of the work (see edition by Manuel Schonhorn, 1972).

Bibliography

See Defoe's letters, ed. by G. H. Healey (1955); biographies by J. R. Sutherland (2d ed. 1950), J. R. Moore (1958), and J. Richetti (1987); studies by G. H. Starr (1965 and 1971), J. R. Sutherland (1971), P. Rogers, ed. (1972), L. A. Curtis (1984), and P. R. Backscheider (1986).

De Leon, Daniel, 1852-1914, American socialist leader. Born on the island of Curaçao of Spanish-American parents, he was educated in Germany and the Netherlands before going (1872) to New York City. There he edited a Spanish newspaper, studied law at Columbia (LL.B., 1876), practiced law for a few years, and then returned to Columbia to lecture (1883-89) on Latin American diplomacy. His interest in labor reform grew, and he joined successively the Knights of Labor (1888), Edward Bellamy's "Nationalist" movement (1889), and the Socialist Labor party (1890).

De Leon was the Socialist Labor candidate for governor of New York in 1891, and for years he edited the Socialist Labor weekly, The People. He was an inflexible and doctrinaire Marxian revolutionist and consequently fell out with most other liberal leaders. He opposed unionization of labor according to trades and led the group that formed the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance, but his leadership was too radical for some of the members (prominent among them Morris Hillquit), who withdrew in 1899 and ultimately formed the Socialist party.

De Leon's prestige subsequently lessened. He helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World in 1905, but in the quarrel over political action he and his followers were expelled. The rival Workers' International Industrial Union, which he then organized, did not flourish. He wrote a great deal of Socialist polemical literature and translated a work of Karl Marx.

See A. Peterson, Daniel De Leon, Social Architect (2 vol., 1941-53); study by L. G. Raĭskiĭ (1959); C. Reeve, The Life and Times of Daniel DeLeon (1972); bibliography by O. C. Johnson (1966).

Barenboim, Daniel, 1942-, Israeli pianist and conductor, b. Buenos Aires, Argentina. He made his debut in Buenos Aires at seven. His family settled in Israel in 1952, and he studied at Rome's Santa Cecilia Academy and with Nadia Boulanger and others. By the 1960s he was a soloist with leading orchestras worldwide and was acclaimed as one of the most brilliant and versatile pianists of his generation. He is particularly noted for performances of Mozart and Beethoven. During the 1960s he began to devote much of his time to conducting, becoming closely associated with the English Chamber Orchestra; since 1972 he has also conducted opera. Barenboim was guest conductor for a number of orchestras before his controversial appointments as director of the Orchestre de Paris (1975-89) and the Bastille Opera (1987-89). In 1991 he succeeded Georg Solti as music director of the Chicago Symphony, ending his tenure there in 2006. In 1992 he became artistic director of the German State Opera, Berlin, and in 1999 he was a founder of the Diwan Orchestra, composed of Israelis and Palestinians and other Arabs. Since 2007 he has been principal guest conductor at Milan's La Scala opera house.

See his A Life in Music (1991) and Music Quickens Time (2009).

Maclise, Daniel, 1811-70, British painter and illustrator, b. Ireland. His character sketches contributed (1830-38) to Fraser's Magazine under the pseudonym Alfred Croquis were later published as The Maclise Portrait Gallery (1871). He was an excellent portraitist and painted his friend Dickens (National Gall., London). Maclise also executed the dramatic narrative scenes, The Meeting of Wellington and Blücher and The Death of Nelson in Westminster Palace, London. Among the writings he illustrated were Dickens's Christmas books and Moore's Irish Melodies.

See memoir by W. J. O'Driscoll (1871).

Shays, Daniel, c.1747-1825, American soldier and insurrectionist, b. probably in Hopkinton, Mass. A farmer from W Massachusetts, he fought the British in the American Revolution and was made a captain of the 5th Massachusetts Regiment in 1777. After the war he settled at Pelham, Mass., and became a leader in the revolt of small farmers that resulted from postwar economic depression; the uprising became known as Shays's Rebellion. After the defeat of the insurgents in Feb., 1787, Shays fled to Vermont. He was finally pardoned in June, 1788, and later moved to New York state.
Bliss, Daniel, 1823-1916, American missionary, b. Franklin co., Vt., founder of Syrian Protestant College (now the American Univ. of Beirut) in Lebanon. He went to Syria in 1855, returning in 1862 to secure funds and a charter for the college, which was opened in 1866; he was its president until 1902. His son, Howard Sweetser Bliss, 1860-1920, b. Syria, grad. Amherst, 1882, and Union Theological Seminary, 1887, succeeded him as president and enlarged and liberalized the college.

See D. Bliss's Reminiscences (ed. by his son, 1920).

Dulany, Daniel, 1685-1753, political leader of colonial Maryland, b. Ireland. He emigrated to Maryland c.1703, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He entered the assembly in 1722 and remained a member for 20 years, becoming a leader of the colonists in opposition to the proprietor. When the proprietor vetoed (1722) a bill passed by the Maryland assembly that would have introduced English statute law into the colony, Dulany denounced his action as a violation of the charter. To win Dulany over, the proprietor appointed him his agent and receiver general in 1733, a judge of admiralty in 1734, and commissary general in 1736. He was also appointed to the council in 1742 and served in that body until his death. His son, Daniel Dulany, 1722-97, was educated in England. He gained prominence as a colonial politician in Maryland and was probably the most celebrated lawyer in the American colonies. Dulany opposed the Stamp Act in his Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies. He lost his popularity, however, when in 1773 he engaged in newspaper controversy with Charles Carroll in defense of the fees exacted by government officials for performing certain services. Dulany was a Loyalist during the Revolution and most of his property was confiscated by the state in 1781.

See A. C. Land, The Dulanys of Maryland (1955, repr. 1974).

Ortega Saavedra, Daniel, 1945-, president of Nicaragua (1979-90, 2007-). As a university student, he joined (1963) the clandestine Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN; see Sandinistas), a Marxist guerrilla coalition that opposed the Somoza dictatorship. In 1967, he was arrested and spent seven years in prison. Head of the Sandinista junta that took power following the 1979 revolution, he was elected president in 1984. As president, he attempted to consolidate the revolution along Marxist lines but was opposed by the United States and U.S.-backed guerrillas, the contras. He was unexpectedly defeated for reelection (1990) by Violetta Barrios de Chamorro, who led a coalition of opposition parties. Ortega subsequently twice lost in presidential elections, in 1996 to Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo and in 2001 to Enrique Bolaños, but in 2006 he again won the presidency, against a divided center-right opposition.
Daniel, in the Bible. 1 Prophet, central figure of the book of Daniel. 2 See Chileab. 3 Sealer of the covenant.
Daniel, Antoine (Saint Antony Daniel), 1600-1648, French missionary in the New World, a Jesuit priest. He came in 1632 to Canada and in 1634 went with Father Jean Brébeuf as missionary to the Huron. He was killed by the Iroquois. One of the Jesuit martyrs of North America, he was beatified in 1925 and canonized in 1930. Feast: Mar. 16 (among the Jesuits) and Sept. 26.
Daniel, Samuel, 1562?-1619, English poet and historian. He was tutor to William Herbert, 3d earl of Pembroke, and later to Lady Anne Clifford. Eventually he found favor with James I, and in 1603 he was appointed inspector of the Children of the Queen's Revels (a company of boy actors), a position he held for the rest of his life. Daniel is known chiefly for Delia (1592), a collection of sonnets. His other poetry includes a narrative, The Complaint of Rosamund (1592), and a defense of learning, Musophilus (1599). Besides being the author of numerous court masques, he wrote two Senecan tragedies, Cleopatra (1594) and Philotas (1605). His ardent patriotism and his belief in a strong and absolute monarchy inspired his epic, The Civil Wars between the Two Houses of Lancaster and York (1595, enl. ed. 1609). Defence of Rhyme (1603?) and a History of England (1631) are his major prose works. He was much admired by the 19th-century English romantics for his purity of diction.

See study by C. Seronsy (1967).

Daniel, book of the Bible. It combines "court" tales, perhaps originating from the 6th cent. B.C., and a series of apocalyptic visions arising from the time of the Maccabean emergency (167-164 B.C.), which clearly presuppose the history of Palestine in the Hellenistic era after Alexander the Great (d.323 B.C.). In its canonical form, the book reads as a divine vindication of the exiled Daniel and the Kingdom of God for which he suffers as the representative of the people of God. A long passage from a point near the beginning of chapter 2 through chapter 7 is written in Aramaic; the rest is in Hebrew. The Septuagint not only inserts the Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men into the third chapter, but adds two more chapters containing the stories of Susanna and of Bel and the Dragon. The additions are found in Catholic Bibles and the Protestant Apocrypha. The common theme of chapters 1-6 and 7-12 is the clash of the Kingdom of God and kingdoms of the earth. Despite the apparent powerlessness of the Kingdom of God and its human champion Daniel—a victim of the exile and Babylonian might—the kings of the earth come to acknowledge that they rule only by divine permission. Chapters 7-12 are to be read on two levels. Events on earth have their heavenly counterparts. In these chapters the supernatural power behind the kings of this world is revealed. For all his ferocity and might, he is a doomed adversary of Israel's God, the King of kings, who vindicates his beleaguered people on earth. The book is both an assurance to the faithful and a summons to perseverance in light of superhuman efforts to eradicate the people of the heavenly King. The book can be divided as follows: Daniel and his friends are taken to the Babylonian court, where they remain faithful to the Law; a dream of King Nebuchadnezzar is interpreted by Daniel; Nebuchadnezzar, demanding divine honors, tries to punish three recalcitrant Jews by burning them in a furnace; a second dream of Nebuchadnezzar is interpreted by Daniel to foretell the king's madness; Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall at Belshazzar's feast; he escapes alive from the lions' den; Daniel has four apocalyptic visions. Fragments of the book of Daniel have been found at Qumran (see Dead Sea Scrolls).

See J. J. Collins, The Apocalyptic Vision of the Book of Daniel (1977); A. Lacocque, The Book of Daniel (1979); J. Goldingay, Daniel (1989). See also bibliography under Old Testament.

Drew, Daniel, 1797-1879, American railroad speculator, b. Carmel, N.Y. He became a cattle dealer in early life and by 1834 was successful enough to engage in the steamboat business on the Hudson, which he developed rapidly. In 1844, Drew entered Wall St., where he founded the firm of Drew, Robinson & Company. After its dissolution a decade later, he became an independent operator and was bold and scheming in pursuing his goals. In 1857 he forced his way into becoming a director of the Erie RR. During the famous "Erie War" (1866-68), Drew manipulated Erie stock so that he and his allies Jay Gould and James Fisk defeated the attempt of Cornelius Vanderbilt to gain control. Sometime later, however, Drew was financially outsmarted by Gould and Fisk. This was the beginning of his downfall, which ultimately led to his complete financial ruin in the Panic of 1873. By 1876 he was bankrupt. In his heyday Drew, a Methodist, contributed to the establishment of several churches, as well as Drew Theological Seminary (now part of Drew Univ.) and Drew Seminary (for girls) at Carmel.

See C. F. Adams and H. Adams, Chapters of Erie (1871, repr. 1967); B. White, The Book of Daniel Drew (1910, repr. 1973).

Appleton, Daniel, 1785-1849, American publisher, b. Haverhill, Mass. The owner of a general store in Boston, he moved to New York in 1826, where he established one of the largest publishing houses in the country. The firm was continued by his sons under the name D. Appleton & Company. It eventually was renamed Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852, American statesman, lawyer, and orator, b. Salisbury (now in Franklin), N.H.

Early Career

He graduated (1801) from Dartmouth College, studied law, and, after an interval as a schoolmaster, was admitted (1805) to the bar. Webster practiced law at Boscawen and Portsmouth, N.H., and rapidly gravitated toward politics. As a Federalist and a defender of the New England shipping interests, he sat (1813-17) in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he opposed James Madison's administration, although he did not join forces with members of the Hartford Convention.

In 1816 he transferred his residence to Boston. Before he was returned (1822) to the House, Webster won fame as a lawyer, defending (1819) his alma mater in the Dartmouth College Case and the Bank of the United States in McCulloch v. Maryland. Again in Congress (1823-27), Webster began to gain repute as one of the greatest orators of his time; his brilliant speeches in the House were matched by his eloquent public addresses—notably the Plymouth address (1820), the Bunker Hill oration (1825), and the speech (1826) on the deaths of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams.

Senator and Secretary of State

As a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts (1827-41), he became a leading political figure of the United States. The dominant interest of his constituency had changed from shipping to industry, so Webster now abandoned his earlier free-trade views and supported the tariff of 1828. In the states' rights controversy that followed he took a strong pro-Union stand, defending the supremacy of the Union in the famous debate with Robert Y. Hayne in 1830. Although Webster supported President Jackson in the nullification crisis, he vehemently opposed him on most issues, especially those concerning financial policy.

Webster became a leader of the Whig party and in 1836 was put forward as a presidential candidate by the Whig groups in New England. However, he won only the electoral votes of Massachusetts. His prominence brought him into consideration in later presidential elections, but he never attained his ambition. After William Henry Harrison was elected (1840) President on the Whig ticket, Webster was appointed (1841) U.S. Secretary of State. Although every other cabinet officer resigned (1841) after John Tyler had succeeded to the presidency and had broken with the Whig leaders, Webster remained at his post until he had completed the settlement of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1843).

Again (1845-50) in the Senate, Webster opposed the annexation of Texas and war with Mexico and faced the rising tide of sectionalism with his customary stand: slavery was an evil, but disunion was a greater one. He steadily lost his following and was sorely disappointed when the Whig party nominated Zachary Taylor for President in 1848. Cherishing the preservation of the Union above his own popularity, Webster, in one of his most eloquent and reasoned speeches, backed the Compromise of 1850 and was reviled by antislavery groups in the North and by members of his own party. He served again (1850-52) as Secretary of State under President Millard Fillmore.

Bibliography

His writings were edited by J. W. McIntyre (18 vol., 1903). See biographies by G. T. Curtis (1869), C. M. Fuess (1930, repr. 1968), J. B. McMaster (1939), and R. N. Current (1955); N. D. Brown, Daniel Webster and the Politics of Availability (1969); R. F. Dalzell, Daniel Webster and the Trial of American Nationalism, 1843-1852 (1972); S. Nathans, Daniel Webster and Jacksonian Democracy (1973). The diary kept by his second wife, C. L. R. Webster, was published as Mr. W. & I (1942).

(born Jan. 18, 1858, Hollidaysburg, Pa., U.S.—died Aug. 4, 1931, Idlewild, Mich.) U.S. surgeon. He graduated from Chicago Medical College. In 1891 he founded Provident Hospital in Chicago, the first interracial hospital in the U.S., to provide training for black interns and nurses. There in 1893 he performed the first successful heart surgery; the patient lived at least 20 years after Williams opened the thoracic cavity, sutured a wound of the pericardium (the sac around the heart), and closed the chest. In 1913 he became the only black charter member of the American College of Surgeons.

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(born May 6, 1875, Hampton, Iowa, U.S.—died July 20, 1959, Bethesda, Md.) U.S. naval officer. After graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy, he served in the Spanish-American War, the Philippine insurrection, and the Boxer Rebellion. He commanded a navy transport during World War I, when he began a friendship with Franklin D. Roosevelt, then assistant secretary of the navy. He served as chief of naval operations (1937–39), as governor of Puerto Rico (1939), and as U.S. ambassador to France (1940). He was Roosevelt's chief of staff during World War II and continued in that post under Harry S. Truman. He was made a fleet admiral in 1944.

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(born Jan. 18, 1782, Salisbury, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 24, 1852, Marshfield, Mass.) U.S. lawyer and politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1813–17). After moving to Boston (1816), he built a prosperous law practice and represented Massachusetts in the House (1823–27). He argued several precedent-setting cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, including the Dartmouth College case, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden. Elected to the U.S. Senate (1827–41, 1845–50), he became famous as an orator for his speeches supporting the Union and opposing the nullification movement and its advocates, John C. Calhoun and Robert Y. Hayne. As U.S. secretary of state (1841–43, 1850–52) he negotiated the Webster-Ashburton Treaty to settle the Canada-Maine border dispute.

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(born June 21, 1774, Scarsdale, N.Y., U.S.—died June 11, 1825, Staten Island, N.Y.) U.S. politician. He served on the state supreme court (1804–07). As governor (1807–17), he initiated education and penal-code reforms and helped secure state legislation outlawing slavery. An opponent of banking interests, he blocked the chartering of a bank by calling an end to the legislature's session, the only such occurrence in New York history. He was twice elected vice president with Pres. James Monroe (1817–25).

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Arnold Palmer.

(born Sept. 10, 1929, Latrobe, Pa., U.S.) U.S. golfer. The son of a greenskeeper, Palmer turned professional in 1954 after winning the U.S. Amateur championship. He was the first player to win the Masters Tournament four times (1958, 1960, 1962, 1964); his other major h1s include the U.S. Open (1960) and the British Open (1961–62). From 1954 through 1975 he won 61 tournaments. He won the PGA Senior Open in 1980 and 1981. He was the first golfer to earn $1,000,000 in tournament prize money. His exciting play and amiable personality won him wide popularity among fans, who became known as “Arnie's Army.” Palmer was also the first athlete to parlay success on the playing field into lucrative off-the-field contracts, and thus he paved the way for athletes who followed to earn substantial sums from endorsement contracts.

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known as the Liberator

(born Aug. 6, 1775, near Cahirciveen, County Kerry, Ire.—died May 15, 1847, Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia) Irish nationalist leader. A lawyer, he gradually became involved in the struggle for Catholic Emancipation, organizing nationwide “aggregate meetings” of Irish Catholics to petition for their legal rights. In 1823 he cofounded the Catholic Association, which won support from Irish political and church leaders. After helping win passage of the 1829 Emancipation Act, which allowed Irish Catholics to serve in the British Parliament, he was elected to the House of Commons. He supported the Whig Party in return for Irish reform measures but became disenchanted with the administration's inaction. In 1839 he formed the Repeal Association to dissolve the Anglo-Irish Act of Union. A series of illegal mass meetings in Ireland led to his arrest for sedition in 1843. After his release in 1844, he faced dissension from William Smith O'Brien's radical Young Ireland movement.

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(born Oct. 30, 1928, Wilmington, Del., U.S.—died Nov. 16, 1999, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. microbiologist. He received a medical degree from Washington University. Working principally at Johns Hopkins University, he used the restriction enzyme isolated from a bacterium by Hamilton O. Smith to investigate the structure of the DNA of a monkey virus (SV40), the simplest virus known to produce cancer. His construction of a genetic map of the virus was the first application of restriction enzymes to the problem of identifying the molecular basis of cancer. He shared a 1978 Nobel Prize with Smith and Werner Arber.

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(born March 16, 1927, Tulsa, Okla., U.S.—died March 26, 2003, Washington, D.C.) U.S. scholar and politician. He grew up in poverty in New York City. After serving in the U.S. navy in World War II, he attended Tufts University, where he earned a doctorate in 1961. From 1961 to 1965 he worked at the U.S. Labor Department, where he cowrote a controversial report that attributed the educational problems of African Americans to the instability of urban African American families. He taught at Harvard (1966–77) and held advisory posts in the administration of Richard Nixon. He was ambassador to India (1973–75) and U.S. representative to the UN (1975–76). He ran successfully for the U.S. Senate from New York in 1976; though he was a Democrat, his candidacy was opposed by many Democratic liberals. Reelected three times, he retired in 2001. In 2000 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

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(born 1736, Hunterdon county, N.J.—died July 6, 1802, Winchester, Va., U.S.) American Revolutionary army officer. He was commissioned a captain of the Virginia riflemen and fought under Benedict Arnold in the unsuccessful assault on Quebec (1775). In 1777 he joined Gen. Horatio Gates in the Battle of Saratoga. In 1780 he was made brigadier general and fought in the South, defeating a large British force at Cowpens, S.C. In 1794 he led Virginia militiamen to help suppress the Whiskey Rebellion.

Learn more about Morgan, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born 1924, Sacho, Kenya Colony) Five-term president of Kenya (1978–2002). Trained as a teacher, Moi served in the cabinet and as vice president (1967–78) under Pres. Jomo Kenyatta before succeeding him as president. Head of the dominant Kenya African National Union (KANU) party, he governed autocratically, finally permitting multiparty elections in 1991, when international pressure forced his hand. His subsequent electoral victories (1992, 1997) led to civil unrest and charges of stealing the elections. During his time in office some sectors of the economy grew, but critics have attributed this to the strong political patronage system. Under Kenya's constitution, Moi was not allowed to stand in the 2002 presidential election and was succeeded by the winner, opposition candidate Mwai Kibaki.

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(born May 6, 1875, Hampton, Iowa, U.S.—died July 20, 1959, Bethesda, Md.) U.S. naval officer. After graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy, he served in the Spanish-American War, the Philippine insurrection, and the Boxer Rebellion. He commanded a navy transport during World War I, when he began a friendship with Franklin D. Roosevelt, then assistant secretary of the navy. He served as chief of naval operations (1937–39), as governor of Puerto Rico (1939), and as U.S. ambassador to France (1940). He was Roosevelt's chief of staff during World War II and continued in that post under Harry S. Truman. He was made a fleet admiral in 1944.

Learn more about Leahy, William D(aniel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 20, 1850, Exeter, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 7, 1931, Stockbridge, Mass.) U.S. sculptor. He produced his first important commission for the town of Concord, Mass.—the famous statue The Minute Man (1874). He was the leading turn-of-the-century American sculptor, with studios in Boston, Concord, Washington, D.C., and New York City. His best-known work, the seated marble figure of Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 1922. His other notable public monuments include the equestrian statues of Ulysses S. Grant in Philadelphia (1898) and George Washington in Paris (1900) and sculptures representing Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, in front of the New York City customhouse (1907).

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(born June 28, 1722, Annapolis, Md.—died March 17, 1797, Baltimore, Md., U.S.) American lawyer. He was educated in England and became a lawyer after returning to Maryland. After serving in Maryland's legislative assembly (1751–54), he was appointed to the Governor's Council (1757–76) in recognition of his support for the colony's proprietary government. Though he wrote an influential pamphlet criticizing the Stamp Act (1765), he opposed revolt against British rule and remained a loyalist during the American Revolution.

Learn more about Dulany, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 29, 1797, Carmel, N.Y., U.S.—died Sept. 18, 1879, New York, N.Y.) U.S. railway financier. In 1844 he founded the Wall Street brokerage firm of Drew, Robinson, and Co., which became one of the principal traders in railroad stocks in the U.S. The “Erie War” of 1866–68, in which Drew joined Jay Gould and James Fisk against Cornelius Vanderbilt in a struggle for control of the Erie Railroad Co., eventually led to his ruin, and he filed for bankruptcy in 1876.

Learn more about Drew, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Daniel Foe

Daniel Defoe, engraving by M. Van der Gucht, after a portrait by J. Taverner, first half of the elipsis

(born 1660, London, Eng.—died April 24, 1731, London) British novelist, pamphleteer, and journalist. A well-educated London merchant, he became an acute economic theorist and began to write eloquent, witty, often audacious tracts on public affairs. A satire he published resulted in his being imprisoned in 1703, and his business collapsed. He traveled as a government secret agent while continuing to write prolifically. In 1704–13 he wrote practically single-handedly the periodical Review, a serious and forceful paper that influenced later essay periodicals such as The Spectator. His Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain, 3 vol. (1724–26), followed several trips to Scotland. Late in life he turned to fiction. He achieved literary immortality with the novel Robinson Crusoe (1719), which drew partly on memoirs of voyagers and castaways. He is also remembered for the vivid, picaresque Moll Flanders (1722); the nonfictional Journal of the Plague Year (1722), on the Great Plague in London in 1664–65; and Roxana (1724), a prototype of the modern novel.

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(born Dec. 14, 1852, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles—died May 11, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Dutch-born U.S. socialist. Arriving in the U.S. in 1874, he joined joined the Socialist Labor Party in 1890 and soon became one of its leaders. Finding the labour-union leadership insufficiently radical, he led a faction that seceded from the Knights of Labor in 1895, later forming the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance (STLA). In 1905 he helped found the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), which absorbed the STLA. In 1908 he was refused a seat at the IWW convention by extremists who rejected political activity of the sort he advocated and who favoured more violent tactics. He then created the unsuccessful Workers' International Industrial Union.

Learn more about De Leon, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 18, 1782, Salisbury, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 24, 1852, Marshfield, Mass.) U.S. lawyer and politician. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1813–17). After moving to Boston (1816), he built a prosperous law practice and represented Massachusetts in the House (1823–27). He argued several precedent-setting cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, including the Dartmouth College case, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden. Elected to the U.S. Senate (1827–41, 1845–50), he became famous as an orator for his speeches supporting the Union and opposing the nullification movement and its advocates, John C. Calhoun and Robert Y. Hayne. As U.S. secretary of state (1841–43, 1850–52) he negotiated the Webster-Ashburton Treaty to settle the Canada-Maine border dispute.

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(born 1924, Sacho, Kenya Colony) Five-term president of Kenya (1978–2002). Trained as a teacher, Moi served in the cabinet and as vice president (1967–78) under Pres. Jomo Kenyatta before succeeding him as president. Head of the dominant Kenya African National Union (KANU) party, he governed autocratically, finally permitting multiparty elections in 1991, when international pressure forced his hand. His subsequent electoral victories (1992, 1997) led to civil unrest and charges of stealing the elections. During his time in office some sectors of the economy grew, but critics have attributed this to the strong political patronage system. Under Kenya's constitution, Moi was not allowed to stand in the 2002 presidential election and was succeeded by the winner, opposition candidate Mwai Kibaki.

Learn more about Moi, Daniel (Toroitich) arap with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 16, 1927, Tulsa, Okla., U.S.—died March 26, 2003, Washington, D.C.) U.S. scholar and politician. He grew up in poverty in New York City. After serving in the U.S. navy in World War II, he attended Tufts University, where he earned a doctorate in 1961. From 1961 to 1965 he worked at the U.S. Labor Department, where he cowrote a controversial report that attributed the educational problems of African Americans to the instability of urban African American families. He taught at Harvard (1966–77) and held advisory posts in the administration of Richard Nixon. He was ambassador to India (1973–75) and U.S. representative to the UN (1975–76). He ran successfully for the U.S. Senate from New York in 1976; though he was a Democrat, his candidacy was opposed by many Democratic liberals. Reelected three times, he retired in 2001. In 2000 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Learn more about Moynihan, Daniel Patrick with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as the Liberator

(born Aug. 6, 1775, near Cahirciveen, County Kerry, Ire.—died May 15, 1847, Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia) Irish nationalist leader. A lawyer, he gradually became involved in the struggle for Catholic Emancipation, organizing nationwide “aggregate meetings” of Irish Catholics to petition for their legal rights. In 1823 he cofounded the Catholic Association, which won support from Irish political and church leaders. After helping win passage of the 1829 Emancipation Act, which allowed Irish Catholics to serve in the British Parliament, he was elected to the House of Commons. He supported the Whig Party in return for Irish reform measures but became disenchanted with the administration's inaction. In 1839 he formed the Repeal Association to dissolve the Anglo-Irish Act of Union. A series of illegal mass meetings in Ireland led to his arrest for sedition in 1843. After his release in 1844, he faced dissension from William Smith O'Brien's radical Young Ireland movement.

Learn more about O'Connell, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 30, 1928, Wilmington, Del., U.S.—died Nov. 16, 1999, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. microbiologist. He received a medical degree from Washington University. Working principally at Johns Hopkins University, he used the restriction enzyme isolated from a bacterium by Hamilton O. Smith to investigate the structure of the DNA of a monkey virus (SV40), the simplest virus known to produce cancer. His construction of a genetic map of the virus was the first application of restriction enzymes to the problem of identifying the molecular basis of cancer. He shared a 1978 Nobel Prize with Smith and Werner Arber.

Learn more about Nathans, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born 1736, Hunterdon county, N.J.—died July 6, 1802, Winchester, Va., U.S.) American Revolutionary army officer. He was commissioned a captain of the Virginia riflemen and fought under Benedict Arnold in the unsuccessful assault on Quebec (1775). In 1777 he joined Gen. Horatio Gates in the Battle of Saratoga. In 1780 he was made brigadier general and fought in the South, defeating a large British force at Cowpens, S.C. In 1794 he led Virginia militiamen to help suppress the Whiskey Rebellion.

Learn more about Morgan, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 4, 1846, Henderson, N.Y., U.S.—died June 1, 1912, Heidelberg, Ger.) U.S. architect and city planner. He pioneered the development of Chicago commercial architecture with his partner, John Wellborn Root (1850–91). Three of the firm's Chicago buildings were designated landmarks in 1962: the Rookery (1886), the Reliance Building (1890), and the Monadnock Building (1891), the last and tallest (16-story) U.S. masonry skyscraper. As chief consulting architect for Chicago's World's Columbian Exposition (1893), Burnham chose firms working in academic eclecticism, the antithesis of the Chicago School. The exposition's resulting “White City,” with its boulevards, gardens, and Classical facades, influenced subsequent planning in the U.S. Burnham's plan for Chicago (1907–09), which the city used for many years, is a classic example of U.S. city planning.

Learn more about Burnham, Daniel H(udson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 18, 1858, Hollidaysburg, Pa., U.S.—died Aug. 4, 1931, Idlewild, Mich.) U.S. surgeon. He graduated from Chicago Medical College. In 1891 he founded Provident Hospital in Chicago, the first interracial hospital in the U.S., to provide training for black interns and nurses. There in 1893 he performed the first successful heart surgery; the patient lived at least 20 years after Williams opened the thoracic cavity, sutured a wound of the pericardium (the sac around the heart), and closed the chest. In 1913 he became the only black charter member of the American College of Surgeons.

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(born June 28, 1722, Annapolis, Md.—died March 17, 1797, Baltimore, Md., U.S.) American lawyer. He was educated in England and became a lawyer after returning to Maryland. After serving in Maryland's legislative assembly (1751–54), he was appointed to the Governor's Council (1757–76) in recognition of his support for the colony's proprietary government. Though he wrote an influential pamphlet criticizing the Stamp Act (1765), he opposed revolt against British rule and remained a loyalist during the American Revolution.

Learn more about Dulany, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 29, 1797, Carmel, N.Y., U.S.—died Sept. 18, 1879, New York, N.Y.) U.S. railway financier. In 1844 he founded the Wall Street brokerage firm of Drew, Robinson, and Co., which became one of the principal traders in railroad stocks in the U.S. The “Erie War” of 1866–68, in which Drew joined Jay Gould and James Fisk against Cornelius Vanderbilt in a struggle for control of the Erie Railroad Co., eventually led to his ruin, and he filed for bankruptcy in 1876.

Learn more about Drew, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Daniel Foe

Daniel Defoe, engraving by M. Van der Gucht, after a portrait by J. Taverner, first half of the elipsis

(born 1660, London, Eng.—died April 24, 1731, London) British novelist, pamphleteer, and journalist. A well-educated London merchant, he became an acute economic theorist and began to write eloquent, witty, often audacious tracts on public affairs. A satire he published resulted in his being imprisoned in 1703, and his business collapsed. He traveled as a government secret agent while continuing to write prolifically. In 1704–13 he wrote practically single-handedly the periodical Review, a serious and forceful paper that influenced later essay periodicals such as The Spectator. His Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain, 3 vol. (1724–26), followed several trips to Scotland. Late in life he turned to fiction. He achieved literary immortality with the novel Robinson Crusoe (1719), which drew partly on memoirs of voyagers and castaways. He is also remembered for the vivid, picaresque Moll Flanders (1722); the nonfictional Journal of the Plague Year (1722), on the Great Plague in London in 1664–65; and Roxana (1724), a prototype of the modern novel.

Learn more about Defoe, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 14, 1852, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles—died May 11, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Dutch-born U.S. socialist. Arriving in the U.S. in 1874, he joined joined the Socialist Labor Party in 1890 and soon became one of its leaders. Finding the labour-union leadership insufficiently radical, he led a faction that seceded from the Knights of Labor in 1895, later forming the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance (STLA). In 1905 he helped found the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), which absorbed the STLA. In 1908 he was refused a seat at the IWW convention by extremists who rejected political activity of the sort he advocated and who favoured more violent tactics. He then created the unsuccessful Workers' International Industrial Union.

Learn more about De Leon, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 21, 1774, Scarsdale, N.Y., U.S.—died June 11, 1825, Staten Island, N.Y.) U.S. politician. He served on the state supreme court (1804–07). As governor (1807–17), he initiated education and penal-code reforms and helped secure state legislation outlawing slavery. An opponent of banking interests, he blocked the chartering of a bank by calling an end to the legislature's session, the only such occurrence in New York history. He was twice elected vice president with Pres. James Monroe (1817–25).

Learn more about Tompkins, Daniel D. with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 20, 1850, Exeter, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 7, 1931, Stockbridge, Mass.) U.S. sculptor. He produced his first important commission for the town of Concord, Mass.—the famous statue The Minute Man (1874). He was the leading turn-of-the-century American sculptor, with studios in Boston, Concord, Washington, D.C., and New York City. His best-known work, the seated marble figure of Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 1922. His other notable public monuments include the equestrian statues of Ulysses S. Grant in Philadelphia (1898) and George Washington in Paris (1900) and sculptures representing Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, in front of the New York City customhouse (1907).

Learn more about French, Daniel Chester with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born , circa Nov. 2, 1734, Berks county, Pa.—died circa Sept. 26, 1820, St. Charles, Mo., U.S.) U.S. frontiersman and legendary hero. He lived on the North Carolina frontier as a hunter and trapper. He made several trips through the Cumberland Gap into eastern Kentucky (1767, 1769–71) and in 1775 was employed to blaze a permanent trail, called the Wilderness Road. He established the settlements of Boonesboro and Harrodsburg. As a militia captain he defended Boonesboro against the Indians; he was captured by the Shawnee in 1778 but escaped after five months to warn Boonesboro of an impending attack. After losing his Kentucky land claims in the late 1780s, he moved to the Missouri Territory. His exploits were featured in a widely read history of Kentucky and in Lord Byron's epic poem Don Juan.

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(born Nov. 15, 1942, Buenos Aires, Arg.) Argentine-born Israeli pianist and conductor. A prodigy, he made his debut at age eight. His family moved to Israel in 1952, and he first performed in the U.S. at Carnegie Hall in 1957. As a pianist he became known for his colourful interpretations of Classical and Romantic composers. He started conducting professionally in 1962 and led the English Chamber Orchestra (1964–75) and the Orchestre de Paris (1975–89). He became principal conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1991 and was appointed music director of the Berlin State Opera in 1992. He has been a prominent advocate for peace in the Middle East.

Learn more about Barenboim, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 4, 1846, Henderson, N.Y., U.S.—died June 1, 1912, Heidelberg, Ger.) U.S. architect and city planner. He pioneered the development of Chicago commercial architecture with his partner, John Wellborn Root (1850–91). Three of the firm's Chicago buildings were designated landmarks in 1962: the Rookery (1886), the Reliance Building (1890), and the Monadnock Building (1891), the last and tallest (16-story) U.S. masonry skyscraper. As chief consulting architect for Chicago's World's Columbian Exposition (1893), Burnham chose firms working in academic eclecticism, the antithesis of the Chicago School. The exposition's resulting “White City,” with its boulevards, gardens, and Classical facades, influenced subsequent planning in the U.S. Burnham's plan for Chicago (1907–09), which the city used for many years, is a classic example of U.S. city planning.

Learn more about Burnham, Daniel H(udson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born , circa Nov. 2, 1734, Berks county, Pa.—died circa Sept. 26, 1820, St. Charles, Mo., U.S.) U.S. frontiersman and legendary hero. He lived on the North Carolina frontier as a hunter and trapper. He made several trips through the Cumberland Gap into eastern Kentucky (1767, 1769–71) and in 1775 was employed to blaze a permanent trail, called the Wilderness Road. He established the settlements of Boonesboro and Harrodsburg. As a militia captain he defended Boonesboro against the Indians; he was captured by the Shawnee in 1778 but escaped after five months to warn Boonesboro of an impending attack. After losing his Kentucky land claims in the late 1780s, he moved to the Missouri Territory. His exploits were featured in a widely read history of Kentucky and in Lord Byron's epic poem Don Juan.

Learn more about Boone, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 15, 1942, Buenos Aires, Arg.) Argentine-born Israeli pianist and conductor. A prodigy, he made his debut at age eight. His family moved to Israel in 1952, and he first performed in the U.S. at Carnegie Hall in 1957. As a pianist he became known for his colourful interpretations of Classical and Romantic composers. He started conducting professionally in 1962 and led the English Chamber Orchestra (1964–75) and the Orchestre de Paris (1975–89). He became principal conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1991 and was appointed music director of the Berlin State Opera in 1992. He has been a prominent advocate for peace in the Middle East.

Learn more about Barenboim, Daniel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Arnold Palmer.

(born Sept. 10, 1929, Latrobe, Pa., U.S.) U.S. golfer. The son of a greenskeeper, Palmer turned professional in 1954 after winning the U.S. Amateur championship. He was the first player to win the Masters Tournament four times (1958, 1960, 1962, 1964); his other major h1s include the U.S. Open (1960) and the British Open (1961–62). From 1954 through 1975 he won 61 tournaments. He won the PGA Senior Open in 1980 and 1981. He was the first golfer to earn $1,000,000 in tournament prize money. His exciting play and amiable personality won him wide popularity among fans, who became known as “Arnie's Army.” Palmer was also the first athlete to parlay success on the playing field into lucrative off-the-field contracts, and thus he paved the way for athletes who followed to earn substantial sums from endorsement contracts.

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Daniel is a town in Wasatch County, Utah, United States. The population was 770 at the 2000 census, at which time it was a census-designated place (CDP). Daniel incorporated as a town in February 2006.

Geography

Daniel is located at (40.471420, -111.408577).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP had a total area of 3.8 square miles (9.7 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 770 people, 238 households, and 209 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 205.3 people per square mile (79.3/km²). There were 259 housing units at an average density of 69.1/sq mi (26.7/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.14% White, 0.26% African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.13% from other races, and 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.51% of the population.

There were 238 households out of which 42.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 79.8% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 11.8% were non-families. 9.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.45.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 29.5% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 107.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.9 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $60,000, and the median income for a family was $59,773. Males had a median income of $43,542 versus $16,667 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $21,764. About 4.0% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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