The list of doctoral degrees awarded by country
includes all doctoral
The Czech system of doctoral degrees is almost identical with that of Slovakia, both systems being for a large part inherited from the Czechoslovak system.
- dr. med. (doctor medicinæ) – Medicine
- dr. jur. (doctor juris) – Law
- dr. theol. (doctor theologiæ) – Theology
- dr. phil. (doctor philosophiæ) – Philosophy (humanities)
- dr. polit. (doctor politices) – Economics
- dr. scient. (doctor scientiarum) – Science (natural sciences)
- dr. techn. (doctor technices) – Technology/engineering
- dr. ling. merc. (doctor linguæ mercantilis) – Professional language
This list is comprehensive list of doctoral decrees granted by Finnish universities, based on the Government decree on university degrees. The English translations are official.
- Elintarviketieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Food Science
- Eläinlääketieteen tohtori – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
- Farmasian tohtori– Doctor of Science (Pharmacy)
- Filosofian tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy
- Hallintotieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Administrative Sciences
- Kasvatustieteen tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy (Education)
- Kauppatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Science (Economics and Business Administration)
- Kuvataiteen tohtori – Doctor of Fine Arts
- Liikuntatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy (Sport and Health Sciences)
- Lääketieteen tohtori – Doctor of Medical Science
- Maatalous- ja metsätieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Science (Agriculture and Forestry)
- Musiikin tohtori – Doctor of Music
- Oikeustieteen tohtori – Doctor of Laws
- Psykologian tohtori – Doctor of Psychology
- Taiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Art and Design)
- Tanssitaiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Dance)
- Teatteritaiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Theater and Drama)
- Tekniikan tohtori – Doctor of Science (Technology) or Doctor of Science (Architecture)
- Teologian tohtori – Doctor of Theology
- Terveystieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Health Sciences
- Valtiotieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Social Sciences
- Yhteiskuntatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Social Sciences
- Doctorat: Ph.D. equivalent. Traditional mentions are :
- Diplôme d'État de docteur (State Degree of Doctor): professional doctorate equivalent.
- Until 1984 existed a higher doctorate called Doctorat d'État and a junior doctorate called Doctorat de troisième cycle.
Despite the name not a genuine doctoral degree, but equivalent to a Masters Degree:
- Dr. med. (Doctor medicinae - medicine), also Dr. med. dent. for dentists and Dr. med. vet. for veterinarians
The system of Slovak doctoral degrees has been inherited from Czechoslovakia and is for a large part identical with that of the Czech Republic.
Doctoral degrees gained after graduation
- Doctor of medicine (Medicinæ universæ doctor – MUDr.)
- Doctor of dental medicine (Medicinæ dentalis doctor – MDDr.)
- Doctor of veterinary medicine (Medicinæ veterinariæ doctor – MVDr.)
These degrees are written before the name.
Doctoral degrees gained after graduation and rigorous examination
- Doctor of philosophy (Philosophiæ doctor – PhDr.)
- Doctor of natural sciences (Rerum naturalium doctor – RNDr.)
- Doctor of pharmacy (Pharmaciæ doctor – PharmDr.)
- Doctor of laws (Juris utrisque doctor – JUDr.)
- Doctor of paedeutics (Paedagogiæ doctor – PaedDr., no longer used in the Czech Republic)
- Doctor of theology (Theologiæ doctor – ThDr.)
- Doctor of economy (Rerum commercialum doctor – RCDr., no longer used)
- Doctor of social sciences (Rerum societarum doctor – RSDr., deprecated – used by the Czechoslovak communist regime)
These degrees are written before the name.
Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study
- Candidate of sciences (Candidatus scientarum – CSc., since 1997 replaced by common PhD.)
- Doctor of philosophy (Philosophiae doctor – PhD., awarded since 1997; requires at least 3–5-year doctoral study)
- Doctor of theology (Theologiae doctor – ThD.) – doctoral study in theology
- Doctor of sciences (Doctor scientarum – DrSc. (DSc. in the Czech Republic); prerequisite: a PhD.-level degree)
These degrees are written after the name.
Both Czech and Slovak orthography state that the 'philosophiae doctor' is abbreviated as 'PhD.' in analogy to all of the other degrees, however, perhaps under influence of international use of 'Ph.D.', this foreign form is used in the Czech Law of the Academic and Scientific Degrees. In fact, Czech lawgivers have enacted an orthographical mistake.
Higher doctorates in the United Kingdom