The cytoplasm is the contents of a cell that is enclosed within the plasma membrane. In eukaryotic cells the cytoplasm contains organelles, such as mitochondria, that are filled with liquid kept separate from the cytoplasm by cell membranes.
The part of the cytoplasm that is not held within organelles is called the cytosol. The cytosol is a complex mixture of cytoskeleton filaments, dissolved molecules, and water that fills much of the volume of a cell. The cytosol is a gel, with a network of fibers dispersed through water. Due to this network of pores and high concentrations of dissolved macromolecules, such as proteins, an effect called macromolecular crowding occurs and the cytosol does not act as an ideal solution. This crowding effect alters how the components of the cytosol interact with each other.
The cytoplasm has three major elements; the cytosol
The cytosol is the portion of a cell that is not enclosed within membrane-bound organelles. The cytosol is a translucent fluid in which the other cytoplasmic elements are suspended. Cytosol makes up about 70% of the cell volume and is composed of water, salts and organic molecules. The cytoplasm also contains the protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton, as well as soluble proteins and large structures such as ribosomes, proteasomes, and the mysterious vault complexes. The inner, granular and more fluid portion of the cytoplasm is referred to as endoplasm.
are membrane-bound compartments within the cell that have specific functions. Some major organelles that are suspended in the cytosol
are the mitochondria
, the endoplasmic reticulum
, the Golgi apparatus
, and in plant cells chloroplasts
are small particles of insoluble substances suspended in the cytosol. A huge range of inclusions exist in different cell types, and range from crystals of calcium oxalate
or silicon dioxide
in plants, to granules of energy-storage materials such as starchs
, or polyhydroxybutyrate
. A particularly widespread example are lipid droplets
, which are spherical droplets composed of lipids and proteins that are used in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes as a way of storing lipids such as fatty acids
. Lipid droplets make up much of the volume of adipocytes
, which are specialized lipid-storage cells, but they are also found in a range of other cell types.
The cytoplasm is the site where most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways
, and processes such as cell division.
- Alberts, Bruce et al. (2003). Essential Cell Biology, 2nd ed., Garland Science, 2003, ISBN 081533480X.
- Human Anatomy & Physiology, seventh edition By; Elain N Marieb and Latja Hoehn.