Strong regionalism in Switzerland
makes it difficult to speak of a homogeneous Swiss culture. The influence of German, French and Italian culture on their neighbouring parts cannot be denied. The Rhaeto-Romanic culture in the eastern mountains of Switzerland is robust.
Newspapers have a strong regional character, but some are renowned for their thorough coverage of international issues, such as the Neue Zürcher Zeitung
and Le Temps
As elsewhere, television
plays a great role in modern cultural life in Switzerland. The national public broadcaster, SRG SSR idée suisse
, offers three networks, one each for the German, French and Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. In the German-speaking part, television from Germany is popular, as is television from France in the French-speaking part and television from Italy in the Italian-speaking part. American movies and television series are influential in all areas.
In film, American productions constitute most of the programme, although several Swiss movies have enjoyed commercial successes in recent years. Maybe due to the multilingual culture, almost all movie theatres play movies in their original language with subtitles, and films on television are often broadcast in original and synchronized versions.
Folk art is kept alive in organizations all over the country. In Switzerland it is mostly expressed in music
, wood carving
. There are also a great number of regional and local rites demarcating times of the year. Yodeling
, despite being stereotypical for Switzerland, is not widely spread and limited to some mountain areas. The same is true for the accordion
which is sometimes called Schwiizerörgeli
rather than Handorgel
in German, implying that it was a Swiss musical instrument.
The alphorn, sometimes called the alpenhorn, is a trumpet- like musical instrument made of wood. It is thought to have the perfect form for a musical wind instrument. The use of the alphorn is seen mainly in mountainous regions, can be very popular in some areas, and like yodeling or the accordion, it has become an epitome of traditional Swiss music.
The melodies of folk music vary between regions. Generally those in pastoral areas are floating and wide- ranging. In the inner and southern Alps, however, the melodies are more songlike but of more limited range. Common and popular themes are about love and the homeland, but patriotic and pastoral as well as hunting themes are also commonplace.
The Alpine folk culture is characterized by very expressive dances. Small musical ensembles can be found in the more mountainous areas, particularly in the French speaking part of Switzerland.
The most common form of woodcarving is chip carving. Such carving is normally for the decoration of everyday objects, such as milk stools, neckband for bells, wooden spoons or walking sticks. Figure carving is also common, particularly of Nativity figures. In some areas the facades of houses are richly decorated using woodcarving. This is widespread in the Bernese Oberland region where Protestant Christianity predominates. In Roman Catholic regions this is far less common.
Embroidery is common on traditional clothing, particularly women's clothing. Embroidery is often limited to prominent points, such as cuffs, hats and scarves. In the past embroidery was a home industry in the northeast and the east of Switzerland. Embroidery is also used for the decoration of fabric. In recent days, embroidery is confined to tourism, as traditional clothes are no longer in use.
There is a strong architectural tradition in Switzerland. The Romanesque style of the 12th century can be found in the cathedrals of Basel
. This style, which is rich in expression, can also be found on many castles and fortresses around the country, many of which preserved in a good condition. The cathedrals of Schaffhausen
are of the Gothic style, and the churches of Einsiedeln
and St. Gallen
are of Baroque style.
During the Renaissance
, a large number of architectural masters gave their talents to Italy
. Most of these came from the southern canton of Ticino
. The Prisons near the Doge's Palace
and the Rialto Bridge
were built by Antonio da Ponte
. The Bridge of Sighs
in Venice was built by Antonio Contino
, and Domenico Fontana
(1543-1607) designed the entire Lateran Palace
as well as the facade of the St. John Lateran Church
and the Royal Palace
in the same city. Fontana's nephew Carlo Maderno
was an architect to Pope Paul V
. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
, the gallery of the Palazzo Spada
and the Filippini monastery
were built by Francesco Borromini
, and Carlo Fontana
was responsible for the facade of San Marcello al Corso
and the Montecitorio Palace
; Baldassare Longhena, from Maroggia, built the church of Santa Maria della Salute
, the Rezzonico
and the Widmann
palaces; all in Venice
Giliardi and Oldelli families from Ticino set up architecture practices in Russia. Giovanni Giliardi built The Orphanage in Moscow, and his son Domenico Giliardi was in charge of the rebuilding Moscow public buildings, including the University, after the Great Fire of 1812. Domenico Trezzini built many places in St. Petersburg by the orders of Peter the Great; Pietro Trezzini (not related to Domenico) continued the tradition in 1740s. Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret) was probably the most creative Swiss architectural export in the 20th century. He was the driving force behind the International school of architecture that heavily influenced almost every trend in buildings throughout the entire Western hemisphere in the recent past.
Distinctive architecture of high quality can be found around Switzerland. It is often considered as particularly innovative modern architecture. Mario Botta is a famous architect who influenced modern architecture. The architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron from Basel in the north of Switzerland have enjoyed fame in recent years, such as through the building of Tate Modern in London.
In the 16th century Protestantism had a strong influence on visual arts in Switzerland. Samuel Hieronymus Grimm
was a well known 18th century watercolourist and ink wash artist, although he created much of his note while working in England. There was almost no influence from Italian or French Renaissance. Chiefly in modern times did Swiss artists begin to emerge internationally. Alberto Giacometti
is said to have derived much of his inspiration from the Etruscans
, but became internationally known. Jean Tinguely
fascinated people from all over the world with complex moving sculptures constructed entirely from scrap materials. Paul Klee
is sometimes regarded as Switzerland's most original and impressive painter.
The Dada movement originated in Switzerland during the 1910s.
Despite the relatively small number of internationally famous artists, there are considerable art collections in renowned museums around Switzerland. These are not only found in the cities of Zürich, Basel and Geneva but also in smaller towns such as Schaffhausen, Martigny and Winterthur. The museums in the smaller towns pride themselves for their contribution to the arts, which exceed what is commonly found in provincial areas.
Graphic arts flourish in Switzerland, as does creative photography. Examples of this can be found on calendars, magazines and outdoor billboard advertisements.
- See also: Swiss Style
In the field of literature Switzerland produced a number of very well known writers. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was from Geneva. The critic and historian Jacob Burckhardt was from Switzerland. The house of Germaine de Staël in Coppet was a centre of European literary life during the 18th century. Other writers include Gottfried Keller, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer, Jeremias Gotthelf and Charles Ferdinand Ramuz. Hermann Hesse and Carl Spitteler both won a Nobel Prize for their works.
In the 20th century the plays of Friedrich Dürrenmatt and Max Frisch impressed readers beyond the borders of Switzerland. There are a great number of regional dialects, especially in the German language. Even though standard German is commonly used for writing, there is a living dialect literature in many areas.
For children's culture there is the cartoon character Globi.
Switzerland is not commonly considered a leading musical nation. However, in the 20th century it produced a number of composers, such as Arthur Honegger, Othmar Schoeck and Frank Martin, all of whom have gained international renown. In Lucerne an annual festival of international music takes place. Other places have similar festivals, ranging from country and western to pop and jazz. The Montreux Jazz Festival is particularly well known.
There has been a long tradition of Swiss scientists ever since Paracelsus
(real name Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim
). Paracelsus introduced the field of chemistry into medicine in the 16th century. The Bernoulli family from Basel
is known for their significant contributions to mathematics over a time span of three generations. Leonhard Euler
is another innovative mathematician. Horace-Bénédict de Saussure
was a naturalist and pioneer in Alpine studies. The Federal Institute of Technology
has produced a great number of Nobel Prize
winners. Ferdinand de Saussure
was an important contributor to the field of linguistics
. Physicist Albert Einstein
, born in Germany, moved to Switzerland in 1895 at the age of 16 and became a Swiss citizen in 1901.
The close proximity to the mountains in all areas in Switzerland has greatly influenced the leisure of Swiss people. The growth of ski and mountaineering resorts in the Swiss mountains have caused the Swiss to become very sports conscious. Apart from skiing and mountaineering, Swiss-style wrestling (Schwingen
) is still popular in rural areas. Sunday-morning shooting sessions and Hornussen
(a kind of Alpine baseball) are two other traditional Swiss sports. Shooting
, ice hockey
, mountain biking
in the forests and mountains are all popular pastimes. Fishing is commonplace in the many lakes and rivers, but often a licence is necessary. Many mountain lakes freeze over during winter and are used for curling, horse and dog racing, particularly around St. Moritz