During a sidereal day, an astronomical object will cross the meridian twice: once at its upper culmination, when it is at its highest point as seen from the earth, and once at its lower culmination, its lowest point. Often, culmination is used to mean upper culmination.
Generally, the sun is visible at its upper culmination (noon) and not visible at its lower culmination. But during winter near the North Pole, the sun is below the horizon at both of its culminations. In most of the northern hemisphere, Polaris, the "North Star", and the rest of the stars of the constellation Ursa Minor can be seen to rotate around the Celestial pole and are all visible at both culminations, as long as the sky is dark enough.
These three examples illustrate all three cases, dependent on the latitude of the observer and the declination of the celestial body.
The third case applies for objects in a part of the full sky equal to the cosine of the latitude (at the equator it applies for all objects, the sky turns around the horizontal north-south line; at the Poles it applies for none, the sky turns around the vertical line). The first and second case apply each for half of the remaining sky.
The time from one upper culmination to the next is approximately 24 hours, and from an upper to a lower culmination approximately 12 hours. The movement of the Earth on its orbit and proper motion of the celestial body affect the time between successive upper culminations of the body. Because of the proper and improper motions of the sun, one solar day (the time between two upper culminations of the sun) is longer than one sidereal day (the time between two like culminations of any fixed star). The mean difference is 1/365.24219 because the Earth needs 365.24219 days for its orbit around the Sun. (see also sidereal day)
At a latitude of 80°N we get the upper culmination at 30°, in the south, and the lower at 10°, also above the horizon (midnight sun), in the north.
Men's shelter officially opens doors ; The opening of the Skowhegan shelter is the culmination of three years of volunteer labor.
Jan 22, 2012; ERIN RHODA Morning Sentinel Portland Press Herald (Maine) 01-22-2012 Men's shelter officially opens doors ; The opening of the...