The village has a population of approximately 430, with an additional 70 in the orbital hamlets of Denton and Chippinghust (2001 census). It takes its name from the Anglo-Saxon "Cudde's Dune" (lit. Cudde's Hill, or the 'Hill of Cuthwine').
Over the past fifty years, many facilities and businesses in Cuddesdon, as in similar villages up and down the country, have closed down and mostly been converted into housing for an increasingly commuter population. These include the petrol station, the shop, the school, the mill, the second public house and various farm buildings. Thus the village has turned from a compact community into what is largely a dormitory village.
There is a free monthly parish newsletter and a reasonably active social life in the village, with annual fireworks, a village fete and various groups which meet regularly such as the film club. Most social activities are organised or co-ordinated by the Parish Council or its subsidiaries.
The Parish Church of All Saints, the Bat and Ball inn, the Village Hall, Ripon College Cuddesdon, and the farms are all still economically active. There has also been much talk of resurrecting a village shop, though a solution is as yet unforthcoming.
In November 2007 a public consultation was held regarding the proposed Parish Plan - a strategic document that promises to chart the hopes of the village for twenty years to come.
Like most other English villages, Cuddesdon has a parish church; the Church of All Saints. Unlike any other village however, it also is home to an Anglican theological college and, until the 1960s, was the site of the Ecclesiastical Palace of the Bishop of the diocese of Oxford, Cuddesdon Palace.
The college, Ripon College Cuddesdon, is the only rural Anglican seminary in the world. The Palace is now a private residence.
Due to the strength and extent of both past and present church connections, the village is also known as the "Holy Hill". It has been suggested that in Cuddesdon 'the presence of the Church has been more strongly felt than perhaps anywhere else in England'.
Cuddesdon lends its name to the Aston & Cuddesdon Deanery area of the Oxford Diocese.