Creole class

Creole class

The Creole class consisted of white inhabitants of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas who were born in these colonies. They were involved in tensions with the Peninsulares, colonists born in either Portugal or Spain.

Creole nationalists were among the main supporters of the Hispanic American wars of independence. Developments under Charles III evoked distrust by the Creoles of Latin America. Until 1760 the colonies had experienced neglect, so that Creoles of the 18th century had achieved de facto independence. Charles III determined to change that thoroughly. Part of the Bourbon Reforms was that the native bureaucracy of the Americas (Creoles) were replaced by Spanish officials born in Spain (Peninsulares). The wealth of the colonies was used to fight Spanish wars, and religious reforms reduced the Church's privileges, which concerned mainly the lower clergy, who were mostly creoles.


  • Fowler, "Latin America 1800-2000"

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