The rulers of Tuscany
have varied over time, sometimes being margraves
, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.
Margraves of Tuscany, 812-1197
- These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.
House of Arles
- These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the original dynasty.
House of Canossa
- These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.
Unofficial Medici Rulers of Florence, 1434-1531
Medici Dukes of Florence, 1531-1569
Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1569-1737
Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807-1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.
Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1814-1860
Tuscany annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia, 1860
Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860-present