Contrôle de vitesse par balises

Île-de-France (region)

Île-de-France (pronounced ; literally "Island of France") is one of the twenty-six administrative regions of France. Created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961, it was renamed as the "Île-de-France" région in 1976 when its administrative status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Despite the name change, Île-de-France is still popularly referred to by French people as the Région Parisienne ("Paris Region") or RP. Ninety percent of its territory is covered by the Paris aire urbaine (or "metropolitan area") which extends beyond its borders in places.

With 11.6 million inhabitants Île-de-France is the most populated region of France. It has more residents than Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece, Portugal, Sweden or all three Baltic states together, and a comparable population to the U.S. state of Ohio and the Canadian province of Ontario. It is the fourth most populous country subdivision in the European Union after England, North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria.

Economically, Île-de-France is one of the richest regions in the world: its total GDP was €500.8 billion in 2006 (US$629.2 billion at 2006 real exchange rates), nearly the entire GDP of the Netherlands, with a per capita GDP at €43,370 (US$54,482) the same year.

History

Timeline

  • 1959: February 4, "District of the Paris Region" (district de la région de Paris) created by a government decree. This creation was a failure, due to a lack of cooperation from the communes and the departments of the Paris region which refused to send their representatives to the district council.
  • 1961: August 2, District of the Paris Region re-created with the same name, but this time by a statute (bill) voted by the French Parliament. The limits of this new District of the Paris Region were exactly the same as the current Île-de-France region. The district council of the aborted 1959 District of the Paris Region was replaced by a Board of Trustees, half of whose members were appointed by the French government, the other half by the local communes and departments. The executive of the district was a civil servant, the Delegate General for the District of the Paris Region, appointed by the French government.
  • 1966: August 10: creation of the Prefecture of the Paris Region, whose limits corresponded exactly to the current Île-de-France region. The Delegate General for the District of the Paris Region was made Prefect of the Paris Region, holding both offices at the same time.
  • 1966: December 17: in French the "district de la région de Paris" was renamed "district de la région parisienne" (same meaning in English).
  • 1976: May 6: the District of the Paris Region was transformed into the Île-de-France region, thus aligning the status of the Paris Region with that of other French regions, which possessed their status since 1972. The Prefecture of the Paris Region was renamed Prefecture of Île-de-France. The former Board of Trustees was replaced by a regional council, 70% of whose members were the representatives of the departments and communes of Île-de-France, while the remaining 30% were chosen by the Members of the French Parliament whose constituencies lay inside Île-de-France. The regional council elected a president, whose executive powers were limited. The office of Delegate General was abolished. It is said that President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing personally insisted on choosing the name "Île-de-France" for the region, instead of the hitherto used Région Parisienne. Île-de-France was the name of the historical province that existed before the French Revolution, but the name had long since fallen out of use. Today, many people and even some official institutions still continue to use the term "Région Parisienne" instead of the official "Île-de-France".
  • 1982: March 2: Île-de-France, like the other French regions, was turned into a "territorial collectivity", i.e., it is no more a mere administrative structure, but a full-fledged political entity, on par with the departments and communes. The powers of the regions were expanded, direct elections of the regional councils were scheduled, and the presidents of the regional councils were given full executive powers.
  • 1986: March 16: first direct election of the regional council by the inhabitants of Île-de-France. The powers and visibility of the Île-de-France region are henceforth greatly increased.

Geography

Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km² (4,637 sq. miles). The built-up area of Paris fills its 12,011 km² to near 23%, and the Paris aire urbaine (or "metropolitan area", a built-up area + commuter belt) extends beyond its borders in places.

Demographics

Île-de-France is composed of eight departments centered around its innermost department and capital, Paris. Around the department of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments commonly known as the petite couronne ("small ring"), and extends into a second outer ring of four departments known as the grande couronne ("large ring").

Most of Île-de-France is covered by the Paris aire urbaine (or "metropolitan area"), a statistical area encompassing the Paris pôle urbain (or "urban area") and its couronne périurbaine commuter belt. At the last census in 1999, 88% of the Île-de-France's population lived in the Paris urban area and 99% of the same regional population lived in the Paris aire urbaine (respectively 9,644,507 people and 10,842,037 people).

Departments in Île-de-France (INSEE 2005 estimates)
Concentric Area Departments Population
2006 est.
Area Density 1999-2006
yearly pop. growth
  Paris (75) 2,168,000 105 km² 20,648/km² +0.3%
Inner ring
(Petite Couronne)
Hauts-de-Seine (92) 1,532,000 176 km² 8,705/km² +1.0%
Seine-Saint-Denis (93) 1,485,000 236 km² 6,292/km² +1.0%
Val-de-Marne (94) 1,293,000 245 km² 5,278/km² +0.8%
Outer ring
(Grande Couronne)
Val-d'Oise (95) 1,153,500 1,246 km² 926/km² +0.6%
Essonne (91) 1,193,500 1,804 km² 662/km² +0.7%
Yvelines (78) 1,398,500 2,284 km² 612/km² +0.5%
Seine-et-Marne (77) 1,267,500 5,915 km² 214/km² +0.9%

Historical population

Île-de-France Population
1801
census
1806
census
1821
census
1826
census
1831
census
1836
census
1841
census
1846
census
1851
census
1856
census
1861
census
1866
census
1872
census
1,352,280 1,407,272 1,549,811 1,780,900 1,707,181 1,882,354 1,998,862 2,180,100 2,239,695 2,552,980 2,819,045 3,039,043 3,141,730
1876
census
1881
census
1886
census
1891
census
1896
census
1901
census
1906
census
1911
census
1921
census
1926
census
1931
census
1936
census
1946
census
3,320,162 3,726,118 3,934,314 4,126,932 4,368,656 4,735,580 4,960,310 5,335,220 5,682,598 6,146,178 6,705,579 6,785,750 6,597,758
1954
census
1962
census
1968
census
1975
census
1982
census
1990
census
1999
census
2002
estimate
2003
estimate
2004
estimate
2005
estimate
2006
estimate
2007
estimate
7,317,063 8,470,015 9,248,631 9,878,565 10,073,059 10,660,554 10,952,011 11,176,008 11,250,617 11,319,972 11,399,319 11,490,968 11,577,000
Census returns before 2000; official Jan. 1 estimates from INSEE after 2000.

Immigration

Paris and the Île-de-France region is a magnet for immigrants, hosting one of the largest concentrations of immigrants in Europe. At the French census of March 1999, 2,159,070 residents of the Île-de-France region were people born outside Metropolitan France, making up 19.7% of the Île-de-France total population. Among these people born outside Metropolitan France, 1,611,989 were immigrants (see definition below the table), making up 14.7% of the Île-de-France total population. INSEE estimates that on January 1, 2005 the number of immigrants in Île-de-France has reached 1,916,000, making up 16.7% of the Île-de-France total population. This is an increase of 304,000 immigrants in slightly less than six years.

Politics

Holders of the executive office

See also

References

Further reading

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