The BMT Franklin Avenue Line (also known as the Franklin Avenue Shuttle and the Brighton-Franklin Line) is a rapid transit line of the New York City Subway in Brooklyn, New York. All service is provided full time by Franklin Avenue Shuttle trains.
The LIRR, however, gained control of the New York and Manhattan Beach Railway, a competitor of the BF&CI, and breached its agreement to provide equal access to the Flatbush Avenue terminal. After the 1882 season, the Brighton was forced to end its trains at Bedford, a situation which soon led to bankruptcy.
In 1896, the Brighton, now the Brooklyn and Brighton Beach Railroad gained a connection with the Kings County Elevated Railway by means of a ramp and short elevated railway, connecting to the former line at Franklin Avenue and Fulton Street. This enabled the KCERR to operate its steam-powered elevated trains on the Brighton Road via the Franklin Avenue right-of-way, providing Brighton riders with direct service to downtown Manhattan via the Brooklyn Bridge.
The KCERR connection was still less than ideal, and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit company, which ended up as the lessor of both the KCERR and B&BB roads, negotiated a more direct subway route under Flatbush Avenue as part of Contract 4 of the Dual Contracts of 1913. Construction of this new connection indirectly contributed to the worst rapid transit wreck in world history, known as the Malbone Street Wreck or Brighton Beach Line Accident when, on November 1, 1918, a five-car wooden elevated train left the tracks and crashed into one of the new tunnel walls, killing at least 93.
On August 1, 1920, the new subway opened and became the new main line for the Brighton Line. At that time, the Franklin Avenue alignment was established as the Brighton-Franklin Line and disconnected from the trackage to Brooklyn Bridge and Manhattan. The line continued to operate elevated train service on the Brighton Beach main line until 1928, after which similar services were continued with steel subway cars.
For the summer excursion season of 1924, the Franklin Avenue Line was upgraded for the operation of six-car subway trains, and assigned the BMT number 7. Services used the Brighton Line during most daytime hours. During warm weather, express services ran to Coney Island on weekend days.
After the city gained ownership of the line in 1940, Brighton-Franklin services gradually declined. A major blow to through service viability occurred in 1954 when the D train of the IND Division was extended to Coney Island via the Culver Line, deprived the Franklin of a major source of transfer traffic, consisting of passengers from Harlem and the Bronx, who now had a more direct route to Coney Island. Brighton-Franklin express service ended by 1959, and the Franklin Avenue Line became a full-time shuttle in 1963.
1896:. A ramp and short elevated railway connect the line to the Kings County Elevated Railway and KCERy trains begin running between Brooklyn Bridge and Brighton Beach. BF&CI trains continue to run from Bedford Terminal, but this service is soon abandoned, though the track connections are retained.
1899: First electrification on the Brighton Line, including the Franklin Avenue Line, is accomplished using trolley wire. Trains that use third rail in elevated service raise trolley poles at Franklin Avenue station. Some passenger steam operates under different circumstances for several more years.
1905-1906: The last remaining grade crossings are eliminated in the vicinity of Park Place by building an elevated structure to connect the old elevated structure and the open-cut portion. In the ensuing years, some existing bridges are strengthened or replaced and some of the elevated trackage placed on concrete-retained embankment.
1920: August 1 — The Brighton Beach Line is connected to the BMT Broadway Line subway via a connection under Flatbush Avenue, and at the same time track connections to the Fulton Street El are severed so that through service to Brooklyn Bridge is no longer possible. Subway trains from New York and elevated trains from Franklin Avenue share operations to Coney Island.
1924: For the summer season, platforms on the line are extended and modified for the operation of subway trains.
1928: The last elevated trains run on the Franklin Avenue Line
1963: The last through trains via the Brighton Line, a short running of the Brighton Beach Local, ends. The Franklin Avenue Line is now a full time shuttle.
1999: The line is reopened after a complete rebuild, which included rebuilding the support infrastructure and stations. The MTA considered abandoning the line in the late 1990s due to the line's deteriorization; community pressure convinced them to rebuild the shuttle instead.
After Park Place, the line broadens from one to two tracks and the right-of-way transforms from 1999 reconstruction to near-original 1878 right-of-way, including the original railroad-style tunnel under Eastern Parkway, at the south end of which is the rehabilitated Botanic Garden station of 1928.
All three of the above stations have been attractively rebuilt or rehabilitated, including distinctive artwork, masonry and ironwork funded by MTA New York City Transit's "Arts in Transit" program.
From Botanic Garden, the line continues on original 1878 roadbed to its connection with the main part of the Brighton Beach Line at Prospect Park. Before entering Prospect Park, most trains switch to the northbound track to enter the station, where the shuttle terminates.
As of 2008, the Franklin Avenue shuttle is the most punctual train in the New York City Subway system with a 99.7 percent on-time average. The shuttle averages 20,000 riders a week.
|Franklin Avenue||through Park Place||O2||bi-directional single track|
|S. of Park Place||Prospect Park north end||O1-O2||O1 is southbound|
|Prospect Park station||A1-A3-A4-A2||A1 is rarely used|
A3 and A4 are Brighton main line
A2 is the regular Franklin stub
|Station||Services||Opened||Transfers and notes|
|Franklin Avenue||August 15, 1896||(IND Fulton Street Line)|
|Bedford Station||August 18, 1878||Superseded as terminal in 1896 by Franklin Avenue station; location served by Dean Street (closed). Track connection and some facilities retained until disconnected during 1904–5 rebuilding.|
|Dean Street||August 15, 1896||Closed c. 1899; re-opened August 28, 1901; closed in 1995; now demolished|
|Park Place||c. 1900|
|Botanic Garden||1928||(IRT Eastern Parkway Line at Franklin Avenue)|
|Consumers Park||Closed in 1928; now demolished|
|Prospect Park||July 2, 1878||(BMT Brighton Line)|
|track connection to BMT Brighton Line (no current service)|