is the title of several pieces by American composer John Cage
, all scored for unorthodox percussion
instruments. The pieces were composed in 1939–42 while Cage was working at the Cornish School of the Arts
in Seattle, Washington
and touring the West Coast
with a percussion ensemble he and Lou Harrison
had founded. The series comprises three Constructions
. A piece titled Fourth Construction
, mentioned in several sources, is apparently either an unfinished work from 1942 or, more likely, an early title of the work we now know as Imaginary Landscape No. 2 (March)
First Construction (in Metal)
Composed in 1939, first title Construction in Metal
. Scored for six percussionists and an assistant. Instruments include, among other things, Japanese
and Balinese gongs
and Turkish cymbals
, automobile brake
and a water gong (a gong lowered into water while vibrating, or struck while it is in the water, etc.) A piano is also used, with the assistant applying a metal rod to the strings.
In First Construction, Cage introduced the technique of composing using fixed "rhythmic structures". The idea was extremely important for his development as a composer, and during the next 17 years most of his work was done using the same technique or variations of it. In this particular case the basic structure is 4, 3, 2, 3, 4, and a single unit contains 16 bars. So the composition begins with four units of 16 bars each, then the next section has three units, the third has two, and so on. Each unit is also divided the same way: four bars, then three, then two, etc. The first part of the piece (four units of 16 bars each) was termed "exposition" by Cage, and the ending (which is a separate nine-bar section) "coda". The music itself is built around sixteen motives employed in strictly determined sequences. Both the use of ethnic percussion and the rhythmic proportions technique were inspired in part by Henry Cowell's lectures that Cage attended in New York City in 1933.
Composed in 1940. Scored for four percussionists. This work, which adopts roughly the same rhythmic scheme as in First Construction
(sixteen 16-bar sections, only the proportion is different - here it is 4, 3, 4, 5), is notable for the use of prepared piano
: although the technique is that of string piano
, the score instructs to place a piece of cardboard
and a screw
in the strings. The nature of the motive use is fugal, which caused Cage to become dissatisfied with the piece in his later years: in a 1980 interview he called it "[essentially] a fugue of a novel order" which has "carry-overs from education and theory" and expressed his dislike of repetition of material in fugues.
Composed in 1941 and dedicated to Xenia Kashevaroff-Cage, to whom Cage was then married and who played in his percussion orchestra. Scored for four percussionists. There are 24 sections of 24 bars each, and the rhythmic structure is rotated between the players: 8, 2, 4, 5, 3, 2 for the fourth, 2, 8, 2, 4, 5, 3 for the first, etc. Instruments include, among other things, batteries of tin cans
and lion's roar.
- Richard Kostelanetz. Conversing with John Cage, Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-93792-2
- James Pritchett, Laura Kuhn. "John Cage", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, grovemusic.com (subscription access).
- David Nicholls. The Cambridge Companion to John Cage. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521789680
- James Pritchett. The Music of John Cage. Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0521565448