Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (1961)
was prepared after the coup d'état in 1960
. It replaced the Constitution of 1924
on June 9, 1961 with 61.7% of the nation in favor, according to the referendum. After the coup d'état of 1980
, a new constitution was prepared. The Turkish Constitution of 1982
, which is still intact, replaced that of 1961.
I. Form of the state
Article 1 - The Turkish State is a Republic.
II. Characteristics of the Republic
Article 2 - The Turkish Republic is a nationalistic, democratic, secular and social state, governed by the rule of law, based on human rights and fundamental tenets set forth in the preamble.
III. Indivisibility of the State, its official language and its seat of government
Article 3 - The Turkish State is an indivisible whole comprising its territory and people. Its official language is Turkish. Its capital is the city of Ankara.
Article 4 - Sovereignty is vested in the nation without reservation and condition. The nation shal exercise its sovereignty through the authorized agencies as prescribed by the principles laid down in the Constitution. The right to exercise such sovereignty shall not be delegated to any one person, group or class. No person or agency shall exercise any state authority, which does not drive its origin from the Constitution.
V. Legislative Power
Article 5 - Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly. This power shall not be delegated.
VI. Executive Function
Article 6 - The executive function shall be carried out by the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers within the framework of law.
VII. Judicial Power
Article 7 - Judicial power shall be exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation.
VIII. Supremacy and the binding force of the Constitution
Article 8 - Laws shall not be in conflict with the Constitution. The provisions of the Constitution shall be the fundamental legal principles binding the legislative, executive and judicial organs, administrative authorities and individuals.
IX. Irrevocability of the form of the State
Article 9 - The provision of the Constitution establishing the form of the state as a republic shall not be amended nor shall any motion therefore be made.
Difference between 1924 and 1961
Unlike the former constitution, constitution of 1961 is based on human rights; with Article 11, the individual's freedom are secured at all times. The phrase social state
was included in this Constitution for the first time. The 1961 constitution also introduced a senate to form a bicameral
Grand National Assembly
was formed of the National Assembly and Senate of the Republic. National Assembly members and the majority of senators were elected by the nation, whereas 15 senators were chosen by the President. These fifteen senators had to be either former Presidents or members of the Committee of National Unity
Though parliamentary democracy was the form of government, some members of the Senate were not elected and were given permanent seat. These included members of the Committee of National Unity, who organized the coup d'état.
References 1961 Constitution
. Retrieved on 2007-04-14..