is the trait
of being painstaking and careful
, or the quality of acting according to the dictates of one's conscience
. It includes such elements as self-discipline
, carefulness, thoroughness, organization, deliberate
(the tendency to think carefully before acting), and need for achievement
. It is an aspect of what was traditionally called character
. Conscientious individuals are generally hard working and reliable. When taken to an extreme, they may also be workaholics, perfectionists
, and compulsive in their behavior. People who are low on conscientiousness are not necessarily lazy or immoral, but they tend to be more laid back, less goal oriented, and less driven by success.
Conscientiousness is one of five superordinate traits in the "Big Five model
" of personality which also consists of extraversion
, openness to experience
, and agreeableness
. Two personality tests that assess these traits are Costa and McCrae's NEO PI-R
and Goldberg's NEO-IPIP. According to these models, conscientiousness is considered to be a continuous dimension of personality, rather than a categorical "type" of person. Scores in conscientiousness follow a normal distribution
Conscientiousness is related to impulse control, but it should not be confused with the problems of impulse control found in neuroticism. People high on neurotic impulsiveness find it difficult to resist temptation or delay gratification. Individuals who are low on conscientious self-discipline are unable to motivate themselves to perform a task that they would like to accomplish. These are conceptually similar but empirically distinct.
The trait cluster of conscientiousness overlaps with other models of personality, such as C. Robert Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, in which it is called self-directedness. It also includes the specific traits of rule consciousness and perfectionism in Cattell's 16 PF model. Many of the behaviors associated with conscientiousness fall under the broad category of emotional intelligence. Traits associated with conscientiousness are frequently assessed by self-report integrity tests given by various corporations to prospective employees.
A considerable amount of research indicates that conscientiousness is one of the best predictors of performance in the workplace.
It is the only personality trait that correlates with performance across all categories of jobs.
and emotional stability may also be important, particularly in jobs that involve a significant amount of social interaction.
Conscientiousness is related to successful academic performance in students. Low levels of conscientiousness are strongly associated with procrastination.
Average levels of conscientiousness vary by state in the USA
. People living in the central part of the country, including the states of Kansas
, and Missouri
tend to have higher scores on average than people living in other regions. People in the southwestern states of New Mexico
, and Arizona
also have relatively high average scores on conscientiousness. Among the eastern states, Florida
is the only one that scores in the top ten for this personality trait.