Conrad

Conrad

[kon-rad]
Witz, Conrad, fl. c.1434-c.1447, German painter, active at Basel and Geneva. Many of his works, such as The Synagogue and the Meeting of Joachim and Anna, can be seen in Basel. His large altarpieces reveal stubby figures that recall painted sculpture and settings of steeply recessed perspective or topographically accurate landscapes; he was one of the first artists to attempt realistic landscapes. Witz showed a remarkable understanding of the effects of reflected light on water and landscape. In his realism he is an early follower of van Eyck and Campin, although his forms are more abstract and geometric.
Richter, Conrad, 1890-1968, American novelist, b. Pine Grove, Pa. After newspaper work in Pennsylvania and Ohio, he moved to New Mexico. Richter's novels treat the American frontier experience in terms of everyday life. His best-known works are the novels The Trees (1940), The Fields (1946), and The Town (1950; Pulitzer Prize), which comprise a trilogy. His other novels include The Sea of Grass (1937), The Light in the Forest (1953), The Lady (1957), and The Aristocrat (1968).
Malte-Brun, Conrad, 1775-1826, Danish geographer, b. Jutland but later settled in Paris; originally named Malthe Konrad Bruun. He is responsible for the descriptive, readable style that became characteristic of the French school of geography. He wrote an encyclopedic geography of the world, a geography of Poland, and a dictionary of geography. He was secretary of the French Society of Geography, as was his son, Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun, 1816-89, who also wrote extensively on geographical subjects.
Conrad, d. 1192, Latin king of Jerusalem (1192), marquis of Montferrat, a leading figure in the Third Crusade (see Crusades). He saved Tyre from the Saracens and became (1187) its lord. In 1189 he joined Guy of Lusignan at the siege of Akko, but a year later he sought to displace Guy as king of Jerusalem. To establish a claim to the crown he married Isabella, daughter of Amalric I. A compromise (1191) between the two men was short lived. In 1192, Conrad was acknowledged as king, but a few days later he was assassinated, probably by Muslim fanatics. The royal title passed to the two later husbands of his widow—Henry, count of Champagne (1192-97), and Amalric II.
Conrad, Joseph, 1857-1924, English novelist, b. Berdichev, Russia (now Berdychiv, Ukraine), originally named Jósef Teodor Konrad Walecz Korzeniowski. Born of Polish parents, he is considered one of the greatest novelists and prose stylists in English literature. In 1874, Conrad went to sea and later joined (1878) an English merchant ship, becoming (1884) a master mariner as well as a British citizen. Retiring from the merchant fleet in 1894, he began his career as a novelist, and all of his novels are written in English, an acquired language. His notable early works include The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), Lord Jim (1900), and the novellas Youth (1902), Heart of Darkness (1902), and Typhoon (1903). The novels Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), Under Western Eyes (1911), and Chance (1913) are regarded by many as Conrad's greatest works. Of his later works, Victory (1915) is the best known. He also collaborated on two novels with Ford Madox Ford, The Inheritors (1901) and Romance (1903). Marked by a distinctive, opulent prose style, Conrad's novels combine realism and high drama. Their settings include nautical backgrounds as well as high society, and international politics. Conrad was a skilled creator of atmosphere and character; the impact of various situations was augmented by his use of symbolism. He portrayed acutely the conflict between non-western cultures and modern civilization. His characters exhibit the possibilities for isolation and moral deterioration in modern life.

See his complete works (26 vol., 1924-26); biographies by J. Baines (1960), F. M. Ford (1965), N. Sherry (1973, repr. 1997), F. R. Karl (1979), J. Meyers (1991), and J. Batchelor (1993); L. Davies et al., ed., The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad (9 vol., 2008); studies by E. Said (1966), R. Curle (1968), J. A. Palmer (1968), B. Johnson (1971), N. Sherry (1971, 1980), and I. Watt (1980); bibliography by T. G. Ehrsam (1969).

Conrad, Michael Georg, 1846-1927, German critic and novelist. With Karl Bleibtreu, he founded (1885) the journal Gesellschaft as a rallying point for German writers of the naturalistic school. Conrad espoused the cause of Zola with great enthusiasm. His works include a volume of criticism, Madame Lutetia (1883), and a naturalistic novel of Munich life, Was die Isar rauscht [What the Isar murmurs] (1887).
Sweynheym, Conrad, fl. 15th cent., early printer. Originally from near Mainz, Germany, Sweynheym with Arnold Pannartz established (c.1464) in the monastery of Subiaco the first known printing press in Italy. Sweynheym and Pannartz first used Greek type there in 1465. They moved to Rome in 1467.
Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760, American pioneer, b. Württemberg, Germany. Arriving in America in 1710, his family settled in Livingston Manor, N.Y., and later at Schoharie. While still a youth, Weiser lived for some time among the Mohawks and learned their language and customs. Going (1729) to Tulpehocken, Pa., he became (1731) the official Pennsylvania Native American interpreter and soon gained fame as a wise and honorable mediator between the whites and the Native Americans. Coming under the influence of Johann Conrad Beissel, he moved (1739) to Ephrata and, leaving his family, entered the Baptist cloister there. Within two years, however, he withdrew, returned to Tulpehocken, and entered local politics. He later aided in establishing Berks co. and in developing Reading, became a Lutheran adherent, and continued as a Native American mediator until his death.

See biography by P. A. W. Wallace (1945, repr. 1971).

Aiken, Conrad, 1889-1973, American author, b. Savannah, Ga., grad. Harvard, 1912. Aiken is best known for his poetry, which often is preoccupied with the sound and structure of music; his volumes of verse include The Charnel Rose (1918), Selected Poems (1929; Pulitzer Prize), Brownstone Eclogues (1942), Collected Poems (1953), A Letter from Li Po (1956), A Seizure of Limericks (1964), and The Clerk's Journal (1971). In 1924 he edited Emily Dickinson's Selected Poems, which established her literary reputation. Aiken's interest in psychopathology is evident in the novels Blue Voyage (1927) and Great Circle (1933). His collected critical essays, A Reviewer's ABC, appeared in 1958, his collected short stories—including "Mr. Arcularis" and "Silent Snow, Secret Snow"—in 1961. Aiken held (1950-57) the poetry chair at the Library of Congress and was awarded the National Medal for Literature (1969).

See his autobiography, Ushant (1952, repr. 1971); biography by J. Martin (1962).

or Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen.

(born March 27, 1845, Lennep, Prussia—died Feb. 10, 1923, Munich, Ger.) German physicist. He taught at the Universities of Giessen (1879–88), Würzburg (1888–1900), and Munich (1900–20). In 1895 he discovered rays that did not exhibit properties such as reflection or refraction and mistakenly thought they were unrelated to light. Because of their mysterious nature, he called them X-rays. He later produced the first X-ray photographs, showing the interiors of metal objects and the bones in his wife's hand. He also did important research in a wide variety of other fields. In 1901 he was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physics.

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orig. Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski

(born Dec. 3, 1857, Berdichev, Ukraine, Russian Empire—died Aug. 3, 1924, Canterbury, Kent, Eng.) Polish-British novelist and short-story writer. His father was a Polish patriot who was exiled to northern Russia, and Conrad was an orphan by age 12. He managed to join the French merchant marine and in 1878 the British merchant navy, where he pursued a career for most of the next 15 years; his naval experiences would provide the material for most of his novels. Though he knew little English before he was 20, he became one of the master English stylists. He is noted for tales in rich prose of dangerous life at sea and in exotic places, settings he used to reveal his real concern, his deeply pessimistic vision of the human struggle. Of his many novels, which include Almayer's Folly (1895), The Nigger of the “Narcissus” (1897), Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911), several are regarded as masterpieces. He also published seven story collections; the novella “Heart of Darkness” (1902) is his most famous shorter work and the basis for Francis Ford Coppola's film Apocalypse Now (1979). Conrad's influence on later novelists has been profound.

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orig. Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski

(born Dec. 3, 1857, Berdichev, Ukraine, Russian Empire—died Aug. 3, 1924, Canterbury, Kent, Eng.) Polish-British novelist and short-story writer. His father was a Polish patriot who was exiled to northern Russia, and Conrad was an orphan by age 12. He managed to join the French merchant marine and in 1878 the British merchant navy, where he pursued a career for most of the next 15 years; his naval experiences would provide the material for most of his novels. Though he knew little English before he was 20, he became one of the master English stylists. He is noted for tales in rich prose of dangerous life at sea and in exotic places, settings he used to reveal his real concern, his deeply pessimistic vision of the human struggle. Of his many novels, which include Almayer's Folly (1895), The Nigger of the “Narcissus” (1897), Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911), several are regarded as masterpieces. He also published seven story collections; the novella “Heart of Darkness” (1902) is his most famous shorter work and the basis for Francis Ford Coppola's film Apocalypse Now (1979). Conrad's influence on later novelists has been profound.

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(born Aug. 5, 1889, Savannah, Ga., U.S.—died Aug. 17, 1973, Savannah) U.S. writer. Aiken was traumatized as a child when his father killed Aiken's mother and then himself. Educated at Harvard University, Aiken wrote most of his fiction in the 1920s and '30s. His works are influenced by early psychoanalytic theory. Generally more successful than his novels were his short stories, notably “Strange Moonlight” from Bring! Bring! (1925) and “Silent Snow, Secret Snow” and “Mr. Arcularis” from Among the Lost People (1934). His best poetry, including “Preludes to Definition,” is in his Collected Poems (1953).

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(born 1093—died Feb. 15, 1152, Bamberg, Ger.) German king (1138–52), the first of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Nephew of Emperor Henry V of Germany, he revolted when he was passed over as heir by the electors, and he was crowned antiking at Nürnberg (1127) and king of Italy (1128). Returning to Germany in 1132, he fought the German king Lothar II until 1135, when Conrad submitted and was pardoned. He became king when Lothar died, quelling resistance in Bavaria and Saxony. Conrad set out for Palestine on the Second Crusade (1147) and visited Constantinople (1148), where he cemented an alliance with Manuel I Comnenus. Unable to visit Rome, he never received the imperial crown.

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(born circa 990—died June 4, 1039, Utrecht, Ger.) German king (1024–39) and emperor (1027–39), founder of the Salian (or Franconian) dynasty. In 1016 he married a duchess to whom he was distantly related, and the emperor Henry II used the marriage as a pretext to have him exiled. The two men were later reconciled, and Conrad was crowned king of Germany in 1024. A rebellion of German nobles and princes of Lombardy collapsed (1025), and Conrad was made successively king of Italy (1026) and emperor (1027). He instituted legislative reforms, issuing a new set of feudal constitutions for Lombardy. His son Henry was elected king in 1028 and became his chief counselor. Conrad defeated Poland (1028), regaining lands lost earlier. He inherited Burgundy (1034) and resolved dissensions among the great princes in Italy (1038).

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(died Dec. 23, 918) German king (911–918). The duke of Franconia and a member of the powerful Franconian dynasty known as the Conradines, Conrad was elected king on the death of the last of the East Frankish Carolingian rulers. His reign was a bitter struggle to maintain the traditions of Carolingian kingship against the growing power of Saxon, Bavarian, and Swabian dukes. Conrad failed to gain the support of the church, and his military campaigns were unsuccessful. Unable to establish his family as the royal house of the eastern Franks, he is reported to have proposed his opponent, Henry of Saxony, as his successor.

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(born Aug. 5, 1889, Savannah, Ga., U.S.—died Aug. 17, 1973, Savannah) U.S. writer. Aiken was traumatized as a child when his father killed Aiken's mother and then himself. Educated at Harvard University, Aiken wrote most of his fiction in the 1920s and '30s. His works are influenced by early psychoanalytic theory. Generally more successful than his novels were his short stories, notably “Strange Moonlight” from Bring! Bring! (1925) and “Silent Snow, Secret Snow” and “Mr. Arcularis” from Among the Lost People (1934). His best poetry, including “Preludes to Definition,” is in his Collected Poems (1953).

Learn more about Aiken, Conrad (Potter) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Conrad is a city in Grundy County, Iowa, United States. The population was 1,055 at the 2000 census. It is part of the WaterlooCedar Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography

Conrad is located at (42.225095, -92.872270).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.2 square miles (3.1 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,055 people, 439 households, and 292 families residing in the city. The population density was 871.7 people per square mile (336.6/km²). There were 483 housing units at an average density of 399.1/sq mi (154.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.96% White, 0.19% from other races, and 0.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population.

There were 439 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.9% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.3% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.91.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, and 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,396, and the median income for a family was $52,574. Males had a median income of $34,083 versus $25,655 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,220. About 3.6% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.7% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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