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conjugation: see inflection.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright © 2004.

Licensed from Columbia University Press

Licensed from Columbia University Press

conjugation, in genetics: see recombination.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright © 2004.

Licensed from Columbia University Press

Licensed from Columbia University Press

Interaction of adjacent bonds in a chemical compound having alternating single and double covalent bonds. The conjugated bonds show modified characteristics because of increased electron delocalization and sharing. Conjugation occurs, for example, within a molecule containing a chain of carbon atoms linked by alternating single and double bonds. Such a conjugated system often gives rise to substances with intense colours—e.g., the biological pigments called carotenes. Another example is the carboxyl group (*see* carboxylic acid; functional group), in which the double bond of the carbonyl group (*singlehorzbond*C*doublehorzbond*O) is adjacent to the single bond attaching the hydroxyl group (*singlehorzbond*OH) to the carbon atom.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

- Conjugal redirects here. For the type of prison visit, see conjugal visit.

Conjugation may refer to:

- Grammatical conjugation, the modification of a verb from its basic form, including:
- Marriage, relationship between two or more individuals.

In mathematics:

- Complex conjugation, the operation which multiplies the imaginary part of a complex number by −1;
- conjugate element (field theory), a generalization of complex conjugation
- The conjugate transpose of a matrix with complex entries is created by taking the transpose of the matrix and the complex conjugate of each entry.
- Conjugate (algebra), used to rationalize the denominator of a fraction.
- In group theory, various notions are called conjugation:
- inner automorphism, a type of conjugation homomorphism
- conjugacy class, the image of an element under the conjugation homomorphisms
- conjugate closure, the image of a subgroup under the conjugation homomorphisms
- conjugation of isometries in Euclidean space, an explicit description of the images of elements under conjugation in a special case
- Topological conjugation, which identifies equivalent dynamical systems.
- Conjugate points, in differential geometry.
- Conjugate prior, in probability theory, a family of prior probability distributions.
- Convex conjugate, generalization of the Legendre transformation. Also known as Legendre-Fenchel transformation or Fenchel transformation.

In the biosciences:

- bacterial conjugation, transfer of DNA without fusion
- conjugate vaccine, in immunology

In chemistry:

- Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory, describes a conjugate acid-base pair
- conjugated system, in organic chemistry, a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and multiple bonds.

In physics:

- Conjugate variables (thermodynamics), the internal energy of a system.
- Conjugate quantities, in quantum physics, are observables that are linked by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, such as position and momentum.

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Last updated on Saturday August 09, 2008 at 12:09:04 PDT (GMT -0700)

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Last updated on Saturday August 09, 2008 at 12:09:04 PDT (GMT -0700)

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