Concrete art and design
is an abstractionist
movement that evolved in the 1930s out of the work of De Stijl
, the futurists
around the Swiss painter Max Bill
. The term "concrete art" was first introduced by Theo van Doesburg
in his "Manifesto of Concrete Art" (1930). In his understanding, this form of abstractionism must be free of any symbolical association with reality, arguing that lines and colors are concrete by themselves.
Max Bill further promoted this idea, organizing the first international exhibition in 1944. The movement came to fruition in Northern Italy and France in the 1940s and 1950's through the work of the groups Movimento d'arte concreta (MAC) and Espace.