The town is located on the southern shore of Conception Bay on the Avalon Peninsula of the island of Newfoundland. It is approximately 10 km southwest from the provincial capital, St. John's. As such, the town is part of the St. John's conurbation and most residents are employed in the nearby cities of St. John's or Mount Pearl.
The town was formed in 1973 through the amalgamation of nine communities: Topsail, Chamberlains, Manuels, Long Pond, Foxtrap, Kelligrews, Upper Gullies, Lawrence Pond and Seal Cove. The name "Manuels" is retained in a river in the east of Conception Bay South, known as Manuels River.
Conception Bay South is currently the third largest population centre in the province. The community corresponds largely, but not exactly, to the boundaries of the electoral district of the same name.
The current mayor is Woodrow "Woody" French.
Kelligrews is noted for an annual festival called the Kelligrews Soiree, celebrated in a Newfoundland folk song of the same name.