• Bicycle lanes
• Wide shoulders
• Plenty of well designed and well placed crosswalks
• Crossing islands in appropriate midblock locations when block lengths are long medians
• Bus pullouts or special bus lanes
• Raised crosswalks
• Audible pedestrian signals
• Sidewalk bulb-outs
• Street trees, planter strips and ground cover, which tend to lower speeds and define an edge to travel ways
• Center medians with trees and ground cover
• Reduction in numbers of driveways
• On street parking and other visual speed reduction methods, when properly designed to accommodate bicycles
A report of the National Conference of State Legislators found that the most effective policy avenue for encouraging bicycling and walking is complete streets.(4)
One study found that 43% of people with safe places to walk within 10 minutes of home met recommended activity levels, while just 27% of those without safe places to walk were active enough.(5)
More than one quarter of all trips are one mile or less – and almost half are under five miles. Most of those trips are now made by car. Streets that provide travel choices give people the option to avoid traffic jams and increase the overall capacity of the transportation network.
Integrating sidewalks, bicycle lanes, transit amenities, and safe crossings into the initial design of a project spares the expense of retrofits later.
(1) B.J. Campbell, Charles V. Zegeer, Herman H. Huang, and Michael J. Cynecki. A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States and Abroad Jan. 2004, Federal Highway Administration, Publication number FHWA-RD-03-042
(2) King, MR, Carnegie, JA, Ewing, R. Pedestrian Safety Through a Raised Median and Redesigned Intersections, Transportation Research Board 1828, 2003) pp 56-66
(3) Koplan, J.P., Liverman, C.T., & Kraak, V.I. (Eds.). Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth. (2004). Preventing childhood obesity: Health in the balance. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine. Retrieved December 7, 2004 from http://books.nap.edu/catalog/11015.html.
(4) Teach Robbins, L., Morandi, L. Promoting Walking and Biking: the Legislative Role. NCSL, December 2002. access: www.activelivingleadership.org/pdf_file/Promoting_Walking_and_biking.pdf
(5) Powell, K.E., Martin, L., & Chowdhury, P.P. Places to walk: convenience and regular physical activity. American Journal of Public Health, 93, (2003): 1519-1521.
(6) Highway Statistics, 2001
(7) Ian Lockwood, P.E., 2006
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