Complementarianism holds that "God has created men and women equal in their essential dignity and human personhood, but different and complementary in function with male headship in the home and in the Church. Unlike the historic Christian Traditionalist or Hierarchical patriarchal perspective of gender relationships, Complementarianism maintains that men and women are equal in the sense that they bear God’s image equally. But with respect to roles in the church and in marriage, gender-based differences determine or restrict the roles appropriate for each. Specifically, there are requirements of men, and restrictions on women.
The complementarian position has clear implications for the ordination of women as well as for Christian views of marriage. Men are expected to take spiritual responsibility, often called headship, for leadership in the home and in the church. Women are restricted from holding the teaching office of the church and from spiritual leadership in the home and in marriage.
The Complementarian view of marriage maintains that gender-based roles and a husband-headship/wife-submission structure is biblically required in marriage. The husband is considered to have the God-given responsibility to provide for, protect, and lead the family. A wife is to submit herself to the leadership of her husband, respecting her husband and serving as his helper in managing the household and nurturing the next generation.
Complementarianism teaches that a wife should be submissive to her husband in all things, the exception being she should never "follow her husband into sin.
Complementarians view women's roles in ministry, particularly in church settings, as limited to one extent or another. While both men and women are presumed gifted for service in the church, the office of pastor is limited to men. Some believe that women should be ordained neither as a pastor nor as an evangelist, while others believe that it is acceptable for women to be evangelists but not pastors. Complementarians would not support placing women in any leadership roles that would imply or provide some authority over men. Which other specific ministry roles are open to women varies among complementarians.
While complementarianism has chiefly been characterized by its contribution to ecclesiology and Christian family relationships, complementarian thought has also been highly influential in the area of Christology and Trinitarian theology, at least in evangelical circles. Starting with George Knight III in 1977, some complementarians have adopted a semi-subordinationist Christology, which states that God the Son and God the Holy Spirit are eternally subordinate to God the Father. In contrast to historic subordinationism, most complementarians are quick to deny that this subordination includes ontological subordination, but nonetheless state that it is a permanent and eternal state defining the Trinitarian relationship, preceding and unrelated to the incarnation. Complementarians hold to this view ostensibly because they believe that the Son's (and Holy Spirit's) eternal subordination to the Father is analogous to women's subordination of role to men (cf. ).
That Complementarianism is biblically required is strongly promoted by the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood. Groups of churches that broadly support this position include some members of the Southern Baptist Convention, the Presbyterian Church of America, the Anglican Diocese of Sydney, Newfrontiers, and Sovereign Grace Ministries, among others.
Noted theologians and Christian thinkers who support the Complementarian position include men such as Wayne Grudem, Albert Mohler, Mark Dever, Mark Driscoll, C. J. Mahaney, Richard Land, Ligon Duncan, Terry Virgo, John F. MacArthur, and John Piper.
Complementarian and Christian Egalitarian views need not be mutually exclusive, according to some recent proposals that one can subscribe both to complementarity and Christian egalitarianism. This theoretically would allow men and women to complement each other without any form of hierarchy. This view argues that the Bible prescribes both equality and complementary positions and roles for both men and women. One academic book advocating this position is Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity Without Hierarchy.
An extensive bibliography of both Complementarian and Christian Egalitarian writing is maintained online at http://www.dorothypatterson.info/booklistings.cfm?subCategory=Biblical%20Manhood%20&%20Womanhood
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