This protein encoded by this gene is a member of the receptors of complement activation (RCA) family and is located in the 'cluster RCA' region of chromosome 1. The gene encodes a monomeric single-pass type I membrane glycoprotein found on erythrocytes, leukocytes, glomerular podocytes, and splenic follicular dendritic cells. The Knops blood group system is a system of antigens located on this protein. The protein mediates cellular binding to particles and immune complexes that have activated complement. Decreases in expression of this protein and/or mutations in its gene have been associated with gallbladder carcinomas, mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with a reduction in Plasmodium falciparum rosetting, conferring protection against severe malaria. Alternate allele-specific splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. Additional allele specific isoforms, including a secreted form, have been described but have not been fully characterized.
In primates, CR1 serves as the main system for processing and clearance of complement opsonized immune complexes. It has been shown that CR1 can act as a negative regulator of the complement cascade, mediate immune adherence and phagocytosis and inhibit both the classic and alternative pathways. The number of CR1 molecules decreases with aging of erythrocytes in normal individuals and is also decreased in pathological conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), HIV infection, some haemolytic anaemias and other conditions featuring immune complexes.
Factor H, another immunoregulatory protein, also maps to this location.
The mean number of complement receptor 1 (CR1) molecules on erythrocytes in normal individuals lies within the range of 100-1000 molecules per cell. Two codominant alleles exist - one controlling high and the other low expression. Homozygotes differ by a factor of 10-20: heterozygotes typically have 500-600 copies per erythrocyte. These two alleles appear to have originated before the divergence of the European and African populations.
The 30 or so SCRs are further grouped into four longer regions termed long homologous repeats (LHRs) each encoding approximately 45 kDa of protein and designated LHR-A, -B, -C, and -D. The first three have seven SCRs while LHR-D has 9 or more. Each LHR is composed of 8 exons and within an LHR, SCR 1, 5, and 7 are each encoded by a single exon, SCR 2 and 6 are each encoded by 2 exons, and a single exon codes for SCR 3 and 4. The LHR seem to have arisen as a result of unequal crossing over and the event that gave rise to LHR-B seems to have occurred within the fourth exon of either LHR-A or –C. To date the atomic structure have been solved for SCRs 15-16, 16 & 16-17.
The antigen is known to lie within the CR1 protein repeats and was first described in 1970 in a 37-year-old Caucasian woman. Racial differences exist in the frequency of these antigens: 98.5% and 96.7% of American Caucasians and Africans respectively are positive for McC(a). 36% of a Mali population were Kn(a) and 14% of exhibited the null (or Helgeson) phenotype compared with only 1% in the American population. The frequencies of McC (b) and Sl (2) are higher in Africans compared with Europeans and while the frequency of McC (b) was similar between Africans from the USA or Mali, the Sl (b) phenotype is significantly more common in Mali - 39% and 65% respectively. In Gambia the Sl (2)/McC(b) phenotype appears to have been positively selected - presumably due to malaria. 80% of Papua New Guineans have the Helgeson phenotype and case control studies suggest this phenotype has a protective effect against severe malaria.
Soluble human complement receptor type 1: in vivo inhibitor of complement suppressing post-ischemic myocardial inflammation and necrosis.
Jul 13, 1990; Soluble Human Complement Receptor Type 1: In vivo Inhibitor of Complement Suppressing Post-Ischemic Myocardial Inflammation and...