In the Greek Septuagint (LXX), Chronicles bears the title Paraleipomêna, i.e., "things omitted," or "supplements," because it contains details not found in the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings. Thus in the Douai Bible translation the books are accordingly styled the "Books of Paralipomenon."
Jerome, in the introduction to his Latin translation of the books of Samuel and Kings, (part of the Vulgate), referred to the book as a chronikon ("Chronicles" in English). The book itself is titled Paralipomena in the Vulgate.
The Jewish ordering of the canon suggests that Chronicles is a summary of the entire span of history to the time it was written. (This might also be the reason the Chronicler commences his genealogy with Adam.) Steven Tuell argues that having Chronicles as the last book in the canon is appropriate since it "attempts to distill and summarize the entire history of God's dealings with God's people."
In Christian Bibles, Chronicles I & II are part of the "historical" books of the Old Testament, following Kings and before Ezra. This order is based upon that found in the Septuagint, followed by the Vulgate, and relates to the view of Chronicles as "supplements" to Samuel and Kings.
In the Septuagint, however, the book appears in two parts. Since Chronicles is one of the longer biblical books, its division into two halves may have served to allow it to be copied in manageably sized scrolls. The Septuagint's division of the book was followed in the Christian textual tradition, for translations of the Bible in manuscripts and later in printed bibles. Thus, in modern Christian bibles, Chronicles is usually published as two books: I Chronicles and II Chronicles.
The two-part division began to be noted in Hebrew Bibles in the 15th century, for reference purposes. Despite such notation, most modern editions of the Bible in Hebrew publish the two parts together as a single book.
However, it is also possible to divide the book into three parts rather than four by combining the sections treating David and Solomon, since they both ruled over a combined Judah and Israel, unlike the last section that contains the chronicle of the Davidic kings who ruled the Kingdom of Judah alone.
Jewish tradition regards Ezra the scribe as the author of Chronicles, and there are many points of resemblance which seem to confirm this opinion: the conclusion of the one and the beginning of the other are almost identical in expression. J. N. Newsome, however, argues that the Chronicler's treatment of prophecy "betrays a difference of theological concern between Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah."
In its general scope and design Chronicles is not so much historical as didactic. The principal aim of the writer appears to be to present moral and religious truth. He does not give prominence to political occurrences, as is done in the books of Samuel and Kings, but to religious institutions, such as the details of the temple service. The genealogies were an important part of the public records of the Hebrew state. They were the basis on which the land was distributed and held, and by which the public services of the temple were arranged and conducted. The Chronicles are an epitome of the sacred history from the days of Adam down to the return from Babylonian exile, a period of about 3,500 years. The writer gathers up the threads of the old national life broken by the captivity.
The sources whence the chronicler compiled his work were public records, registers, and genealogical tables belonging to the Jews. These are referred to in the course of the book (1 Chr. 27:24; 29:29; 2 Chr. 9:29; 12:15; 13:22; 20:34; 24:27; 26:22; 32:32; 33:18, 19; 27:7; 35:25). There are in Chronicles, and the books of Samuel and Kings, forty parallels, often verbal, proving that the writer of Chronicles both knew and used those other books.
As compared with Samuel and Kings, the Book of Chronicles omits many particulars there recorded and includes many things not found in the other two documents. Often the Chronicles paint a somewhat more positive picture of the same events. This corresponds to their time of composition: Samuel and Kings were probably completed during the exile, at a time when the history of the newly wiped out Hebrew kingdoms was still fresh in the minds of the writers, a period largely considered a colossal failure. The Chronicles, on the other hand, were written much later, after the restoration of the Jewish community in Palestine, at a time when the kingdoms were beginning to be regarded as the nostalgic past, something to be at least partially imitated, not something to be avoided. Some scholars consider Samuel and Kings, which were written earlier, to provide a more reliable history than Chronicles.
Twenty whole chapters of the Chronicles, and twenty-four parts of chapters, are occupied with matters not found elsewhere. It also records many people and events in fuller detail, as the list of David's heroes (1 Chr. 12:1-37), the removal of the Ark of the Covenant from Kirjath-jearim to Mount Zion (1 Chr. 13; 15:2-24; 16:4-43; comp. 2 Sam. 6), Uzziah's tzaraas (commonly translated as "leprosy") and its cause (2 Chr. 26:16-21; comp. 2 Kings 15:5), etc.
It has also been observed that another peculiarity of the book is that it substitutes more modern and more common expressions for those that had then become unusual or obsolete. This is seen particularly in the substitution of modern names of places, such as were in use in the writer's day, for the old names; thus Gezer (1 Chr. 20:4) is used instead of Gob (2 Sam. 21:18), etc.
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