Commagene or Kommagene (Greek:Kομμαγηνή, Kommagênê Կոմմագենէ) is a region of ancient Armenia which is located in modern south eastern Turkey on the border with Syria. Initially a part of the Armenian province of Sophene, it was detached from Armenia along with Sophene by the Seleucids, forming part of the Kingdom of Sophene.
Later, in about 163 B.C. the Seleucids detached Commagene from Sophene. The local satrap Ptolemaeus of Commagene established himself as ruler of the Kingdom of Commagene in this year. The kingdom maintained independence until 72 A.D. when it became part of the Roman province of Syria.
Historical evidence suggests that the population of the region was linguistically and ethnically Armenian until the end of the 1st century B.C.